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Inmaculada Julián

(b Madrid, Feb 26, 1937).

Spanish painter, sculptor, potter, printmaker and stage designer . As a painter he was mainly self-taught. After working as a journalist in 1957, he left Spain in 1958 to avoid military service, settling in Paris. There he continued to work both as a journalist and painter. From 1968 to 1972 he lived in Milan, returning to Paris in 1973. His work developed from expressionism to realism (Nueva figurina), which reflected on the pictorial language and function of painting and the artist’s role in society. He manipulated ready-made images, words and elements derived from commercial art and the work of other painters. His pieces formed series whose titles referred to the legacy of the Spanish Civil War and the contemporary political situation to help make their critical point. His work frequently provoked controversy, for example his series Arcole Bridge and St Bernard’s Pass (1962–6) was based on the theme of Napoleon Bonaparte as a symbol of imperialism (e.g. ...


Duncan Kinkead

(b Villanueva de los Infantes, Ciudad Real, Nov 3, 1633; d Seville, Jan 12, 1703).

Spanish painter and etcher . He is first documented in Seville in 1652 and entered the painters’ guild there on 16 June 1656. His mature style is predominantly influenced by the work of Murillo and, to a lesser extent, that of Juan de Valdés Leal. In 1675, with Bernardo Simón de Pineda, Arteaga y Alfaro designed the new altarpiece in the Royal Chapel in Seville Cathedral. His first independent commission dates from 1676, yet his finest work is the set of nine Old Testament scenes from 1690 (Seville Cathedral). Although he also worked as a gilder, the trade in painting with the New World was an important source of income for him. He was a prolific but not gifted etcher, producing prints from 1661 until the year of his death. His exact relationship to the etcher Bartolomé Arteaga (fl 1627) is unclear. Francisco de Arteaga (d 1679), Matías’s son (not his brother), was also an etcher. In Seville, Arteaga y Alfaro served the guild and the Real Academia de Santa Isabel de Hungría in various posts....


Blanca García Vega

(b Huesca, c. 1650; d Huesca, 1711).

Spanish engraver, painter, architect, mathematician and astronomer . He founded the chair of mathematics at the University of Huesca, designed the façade of the university and from 1690 was responsible for overseeing the whole of its construction. He executed an etching of this façade, as well as others showing allegories referring to the city and the university. Artiga wrote scientific and literary works, including an unpublished treatise entitled Fortificación elemental, which he illustrated. He also illustrated Vicencio Juan de Lastanosa’s Tratado de la moneda jaquesa (Saragossa, 1681) and engraved some further architectural views as well as images of antique Roman fragments and archaeological remains. In addition, he produced religious engravings, and a number of paintings have been attributed to him by Ceán Bermúdez.

Bénézit; Ceán Bermúdez A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 192 E. Páez Ríos: Repertorio (Madrid, 1981–3), i, pp. 70–71 C. Guitart Aparicio: ‘Geografía de la arquitectura barroca en Aragón’, ...


Marion Hagenmann-Bischoff


(b Brussels, c. ?1570–80).

Flemish goldsmith, draughtsman, sculptor, copper engraver and embosser, active in Germany . As a skilled goldsmith from Brussels, he is documented at Augsburg between 1598 and 1604, and from 1603 as a tax-paying citizen; before this he was probably living in Friedberg nearby. After he is recorded as paying taxes three years in advance, traces of Aspruck fade away in 1604. Since he was not accepted as a master craftsman by the Augsburg goldsmiths’ trade, he worked with them as a ‘free artist’. His skills included draughtsmanship, modelling and casting as well as copper engraving, which he also taught to goldsmith apprentices and journeymen. Aspruck’s drawings from 1597 to 1601 show an individual style influenced by Hendrick Goltzius and Bartholomäus Spranger, for example Venus and Amor (1598; Hamburg, Ksthalle). He also sketched for other engravers, as is known, first of all, from the surviving publishing production of the Antwerp engraver Dominicus Custos in Augsburg. In ...


Alberto Cernuschi

(b Orléans, June 24, 1882; d Neuilly-sur-Seine, nr Paris, Oct 30, 1947).

French painter and printmaker . He studied design and painting at the Collège Sainte-Croix in Orléans and from 1903 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was a pupil of Fernand Cormon. Although he greatly admired Cézanne and was friendly with the Fauves, he sought to develop a personal style characterized by subdued colours, sensitive brushwork and a strong sense of composition and design. As an oil painter, watercolourist and lithographer he produced landscapes (e.g. Landscape at Neuilly, 1924; Algiers, Mus. N. B.-A.), portraits and genre scenes such as Coffee in the Garden (1922; Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris). He also worked as a book illustrator, particularly in the 1920s; among his works in this medium were editions of Francis Carco’s Rien qu’une femme and Mort de quelqu’un by Jules Romains.

F. Carco: Maurice Asselin (Paris, 1924) J. Alazard: ‘Maurice Asselin’, L’Amour de l’art [cont. as Prométhée; reverts to Amour A.]...


Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Mechelen, Flanders, c. 1585–90; d ?Madrid, c. 1650).

Spanish engraver and medallist of Flemish birth. From the beginning of the 17th century until 1609 he lived in Toledo, where, under the supervision of El Greco, he worked as an engraver and printed (1605–6) such works of his master as SS Peter and Paul (1603–7; Stockholm, Nmus.) and St Francis and Brother Leo (c. 1600–05; Ottawa, N.G.). Other engravings from this period include frontispieces for Historia de … Nuestra Señora de Valvanera (Ávila, 1607) by Francisco de Ariz and the Index librorum prohibitorum (Madrid, 1612) by Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, the Archbishop of Toledo. From 1609 to 1636 he was engraver at the Casa de Moneda in Segovia, where he created designs for currency and made the printing plates. He also executed engravings for Obras espirituales (Alcalá de Henares, 1618) by St John of the Cross and the frontispiece for Historia … de Segovia...


Joan Hichberger

(b London, 1775; d ?London, ?1831–3).

English painter and printmaker. At the age of nine he was taken to live in St Petersburg by his uncle, James Walker, who was an engraver in the service of Catherine II, Empress of Russia. Atkinson subsequently gained the patronage of the Empress and her son, Paul I (reg 1796–1801), executing a series of paintings on Russian history (e.g. Victory of the Cossacks of the Don over the Tartars) for them. He returned to England in 1801 and by 1808 was exhibiting as an Associate at the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours, showing such literary and patriotic pictures as Shakespeare’s ‘Seven Ages’. A series of his soft-ground etchings, The Miseries of Human Life, by One of the Wretched (London, BM), was published in London in 1807. He also produced sets of engravings of military costumes, such as A Picturesque Representation of the Naval, Military and Miscellaneous Costumes of Great Britain...


Anthony Dyson

(b Salisbury, April 4, 1817; d 1889 or 1890).

English engraver. He was active mainly in London, where he was apprenticed for seven years to the eminent engraver Samuel Cousins. Like his teacher, he engraved many plates after the works of John Everett Millais (e.g. the Black Brunswicker, 1860, Port Sunlight, Lady Lever A.G.; declared for publication on 16 June 1864 jointly by Henry Graves & Co. and Moore, McQueen & Co.) and Edwin Landseer (e.g. In Time of War and In Time of Peace, ex-Tate, London, destr.; published in 1864 by Henry Graves & Co. and Thomas Agnew). Francis Grant, William Powell Frith and Franz Xavier Winterhalter are among the other artists whose work he reproduced, but perhaps his best-known plate (untraced), published in 1877 by Thomas McLean, is that after Flora by Valentine W. Bromley (1848–72). One of his last plates was engraved in collaboration with Cousins: a reproduction in mezzotint of Millais’s Perfect Bliss...


Mark Castro

[Murillo, Gerardo]

(b Guadalajara, Oct 3, 1875; d Mexico City, Aug 14, 1964).

Mexican painter, printmaker, writer, theorist, volcanologist, and politician. Murillo first studied art in his native Guadalajara with the painter Félix Bernardelli (1866–1905). Murillo relocated to Mexico City in 1896, studying briefly at the Academia de San Carlos, before securing support from the government to continue his education in Europe. He stopped briefly in Paris in 1897 before moving on to Rome and beginning his studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti and the Real Academia de España. Murillo’s encounters with European art had a profound impact on him, particularly Impressionism. He also achieved a measure of success on the European art scene, and his Self-portrait (1899; priv. col.) was awarded the silver medal at the Paris Salon. During his six-year stay Murillo also became absorbed by French and Italian socialist political theory.

Murillo returned to Mexico in 1904, joining the staff of the Academia de San Carlos, where he became an agitator for reform, clashing with the school’s administration over teaching methods and becoming a hero to students, among them José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. The debates culminated in the student strike of ...


Willemijn Stokvis

(b Constantine, Algeria, Jan 23, 1913; d Paris, Feb 12, 1960).

French painter, lithographer and writer. The Jewish intellectual milieu in which he grew up led to his interest in philosophy and religion, and from 1930 to 1934 he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne. While in Paris, however, he was confronted with modern painting for the first time, and his interest in poetry was awakened. Recognizing a means of expressing his interest in magical phenomena, in 1941 he began to paint and write poetry. His activity in the Résistance and his Jewish ancestry led to his arrest in 1942; by pleading insanity he was able to save himself but was confined to the Sainte Anne asylum, where he wrote poetry and painted. In the autumn of 1944, shortly after leaving the asylum, his first and only collection of poems, Le Sang profond, was published, and he exhibited drawings at the Galerie Arc en Ciel.

During the immediate post-war years Atlan’s work was well received in Paris. He had a one-man show in ...


(b Nice, Oct 31, 1787; d Paris, May 2, 1858).

French draughtsman and lithographer. The artist’s family name was Aubry, but after his marriage he added his wife’s maiden name to his own. Aubry-Lecomte was originally employed at the Ministry of Finance in Paris, but his interest in drawing led him to enrol at Girodet’s atelier at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Aubry-Lecomte proved to be a proficient draughtsman and rapidly mastered the new technique of lithography, encouraged by Girodet, becoming one of its leading practitioners. He was also one of Girodet’s most valued pupils, making lithographic reproductions of the master’s paintings to be copied in the atelier. Among the most important of these are the suite of 16 prints (1822) showing the heads of the main figures from Ossian and the French Generals (1802; Malmaison, Château N.), a print (1824) of Danaë (1797) and another of an Amazon painted for the Duchesse de ...


Jorge Glusberg

(b Buenos Aires, Aug 2, 1931; d Sept 22, 1998).

Argentine draftsman and printmaker. He studied under the Argentine painter Demetrio Urruchúa (1902–1978) and later at the Instituto Superior de Artes of the Universidad Nacional in Tucumán, under his father, Pompeyo Audivert (1900–1977), and Lino Eneas Spilimbergo, who encouraged him to take up printmaking. After working in a realist style from ...


Maxime Préaud

French family of artists. Its history (see fig.) began with two engravers: Charles [Karl] Audran (b Paris, c. 1594; d Paris, 1674), who is thought to have trained in Italy with Matthäus Greuter (1564/6–1638) and produced much work of inconsistent quality, and his brother Claude Audran I (b Paris, c. 1592 or 1597; d Lyon, 18 Nov 1677), who made undistinguished book illustrations and portraits. Claude’s eldest son, Germain (b Lyon, 6 Dec 1631; bur Lyon, 4 May 1710), was also an engraver of book illustrations and portraits and taught at the Académie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts in Lyon. The family’s most prominent members were Claude I’s two younger sons: (1) Claude Audran II, a painter, and particularly (2) Girard Audran, an engraver. The next generation produced artists of some distinction in three of Germain’s sons: (3) Claude Audran III, a painter, and ...


Catherine Lampert

(b Berlin, April 29, 1931).

British painter and printmaker of German birth. He was sent to England in 1939 and moved from school in Kent to London in 1947, where he began attending art classes at Hampstead Garden Suburb Institute and acting in fringe theatre. From 1947 to 1948 he studied at Borough Polytechnic under David Bomberg, whose teaching was especially valuable in its emphasis on risk and on seeking an organic, unified form. Auerbach continued in Bomberg’s evening life classes while at St Martin’s School of Art (1948–52). He considered his first original achievement to have been Summer Building Site (1952; Mrs P. Hill priv. col., see 1986 exh. cat., p. 8), of a scene at Earls Court; this was rather geometric and painted in formal, prismatic colour, but much of his early work was thickly and laboriously impastoed in earth colours, as in Head of E. O. W. (1955...


Phillip Dennis Cate

[Georges] (Hulot)

(b Beauvais, April 26, 1863; d Paris, Feb 6, 1938).

French illustrator, typographical designer, writer and printmaker . He went to Paris in 1883 to pursue a literary career. His first humorous essays were published that year in the Chat Noir journal. He was introduced to the many avant-garde artists and writers who frequented the Chat Noir cabaret in Montmartre and contributed to the journal. Of these Henri Rivière and Eugène Grasset were especially important to his artistic development, Rivière coaching Auriol in drawing while Grasset introduced him to typographical design. Auriol’s close association with Rivière culminated in the latter’s album of lithographs, Les Trente-six Vues de la Tour Eiffel (1902; for illustration see Japonisme), for which Auriol designed the decorative cover, end-papers and typography.

Auriol served as writer, illustrator and editor of the Chat Noir for ten years (1883–93). He produced book covers for the Chat-Noir Guide (1888) and the two-volume Les Contes du Chat Noir...


Marco Livingstone

(b Harlow, Essex, April 11, 1960).

English painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Maidstone College of Art (1978–81) and from 1982 to 1985 at the Royal College of Art in London, during which time he produced paintings crowded with fantastic incident partly under the inspiration of Paul Klee. Even after he moved to a spare, at times almost Minimalist style, the unfashionable example of Klee remained important to him for the poetic richness of its imagination, for the freedom it represented in creating a new style for every picture, and for the privileged position it gave to working on an intimate scale. Two typical oil paintings of the late 1980s, Pear (355×305 mm, 1988) and Breath (406×356 mm, 1987; for illustrations see Livingstone), demonstrate the extremes of his art at that time: one a straightforward, graceful rendering of a piece of fruit against a scraped-down, dark monochrome background, the other an apparently abstract painting consisting of a balloon-like red shape as a metaphor of any living organism’s most primal act. In his ink drawings and watercolours, too, he moved easily from figurative images to abstract forms without any sense of contradiction, often pairing these very different kinds of works when hanging or reproducing them so as to spark them off against each other....


Véronique Meyer

French family of draughtsmen and engravers.

(b Paris, c. 1656; d Paris, May 23, 1722). He was also a print-publisher and print-seller.

He probably trained with Adam Pérelle and, like him, specialized in topographical representations. He engraved in suites many views of Paris and of provincial, European and African cities, mixing etching and burin work in a style that was often rather unpolished. In 1685 he obtained a royal licence for ten years, authorizing him to reproduce ‘le profil des maisons royales’; he then published views of Versailles (Weigert, nos 198–293). He also engraved and published some fashionable images, such as Child of Good Family Walking with his Governess (w 388). Among the 412 items that comprise his oeuvre, there are only two portraits and two prints of historical subjects. Also attributed to him are some engravings of designs for theatre and ballet scenery after Giacomo Torelli, ...


Barbara Haskell

(b Sand Bank [now Altmar], NY, March 7, 1885; d New York, Jan 3, 1965).

American painter and printmaker. Avery spent his childhood in Hartford, CT, where he remained until 1925, attending art school from 1911 to 1919 and thereafter painting in the surrounding countryside. His works from this period are characterized by shiny, enamel-like surfaces, created by applying colours with brushes and a palette knife and blending them with his fingers. After marrying and moving to New York in 1925, he replaced the light-drenched palette of his Hartford paintings with sombre tones. He also stopped using an impastoed, palette-knife technique and began to brush pigment on his canvases in thin layers. His figurative and genre subjects resembled those of the realists, but his technique of dispensing with illusionistically modelled shapes in favour of simplified forms and flat colours derived from European artists such as Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso (e.g. Harbour at Night, 1932; Washington, DC, Phillips Col. and The Steeplechase, Coney Island, 1929...


Madeleine Fidell-Beaufort

(b New York, March 17, 1822; d New York, Aug 11, 1904)

American wood-engraver, art dealer, collector and philanthropist. Avery’s career as a wood-engraver and his involvement with the New York publishing trade began in the early 1840s. He worked for, among others, Appleton’s, the New York Herald and Harper’s and produced illustrations for trade cards, religious tracts, adventure stories and children’s books. By the early 1850s Avery had begun compiling humorous books and commissioning drawings from such artist-illustrators as Felix Octavius Carr Darley, John Whetten Ehninger, Augustus Hoppin (1827–96), Tompkins Harrison Matteson and John McLenan (1827–66). His business contacts led to close relationships with such artists as Frederick Church, John F. Kensett and William Trost Richards.

By the late 1850s Avery had begun to collect drawings and small cabinet pictures by local artists. Other art collectors, notably William T. Walters, asked Avery’s advice when commissioning works of art. In 1864 he turned his engraving practice over to ...


[Óbidos, Josefa d’]

(b Seville, c. 1630; d Óbidos, July 22, 1684).

Portuguese painter and engraver. She was the daughter of the Portuguese painter Baltazar Gomes Figueira (1597–1674) and a Spanish lady, Doña Catarina de Ayala y Cabrera. After the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy in 1640 the family moved to Coimbra. Here Josefa began her apprenticeship under her father, a painter of landscapes, still-lifes and religious works, who in 1644 painted the retable of Nossa Senhora da Graça, Coimbra, in the naturalist-tenebrist style he had learnt in Seville in the circles of Juan del Castillo, Juan de Roelas and Francisco de Zurbarán.

Josefa’s first known work is an engraving of St Catharine (1646; Lisbon, Mateus José de Arriaga Xavier da Costa priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., pl. 1). In 1647 she painted on copper the Mystic Marriage of St Catharine (Lisbon, Mus. N.A. Ant.), which, despite the artificial lighting, dainty figures and the almost obsessive piety, shows her promise as a painter in oils. The fine painting on copper of ...