Bazaar, which is rooted in Middle Persian wāzār and Armenian vačaṟ, has acquired three different meanings: the market as a whole, a market day, and the marketplace. The bazaar as a place is an assemblage of workshops and stores where various goods and services are offered.
Primitive forms of shops and trade centres existed in early civilizations in the Near East, such as Sialk, Tepe in Kashan, Çatal Hüyük, Jerico, and Susa. After the 4th millennium BC, the population grew and villages gradually joined together to shape new cities, resulting in trade even with the remote areas as well as the acceleration of the population in towns. The advancement of trade and accumulation of wealth necessitated the creation of trade centres. Trade, and consequently marketplaces, worked as the main driving force in connecting separate civilizations, while fostering a division of labour, the diffusion of technological innovations, methods of intercultural communication, political and economic management, and techniques of farming and industrial production....
(b Valpiana, Oct 1, 1842; d Milan, May 25, 1907).
Italian architect and engineer. He studied in Pavia and then at the Politecnico in Turin, where he qualified as an engineer (1867). He also studied architecture under Camillo Boito at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera, Milan. Among his early designs were the classical octagonal marble fountain (1870), known as ‘La Bollente’, in the spa town of Acqui Terme, and buildings including the four entrance gateways at the Esposizione Italiana (1881), Milan, his first major project. His two most important works are completely dissimilar in style. The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (1888–93; damaged 1943; restored) on the Corso Venezia, Milan, is in a powerful Romanesque and Gothic style with a hint of Moorish architecture and, though much influenced by the ideas of Camillo Boito, it also has close international parallels in style with other natural history museums, such as that in London (...
Place where works of art are displayed. In a commercial gallery, works of art are displayed for the purposes of sale (for information on non-commercial art galleries see Display of art and Museum, §I). Historically, artworks were commissioned by patrons directly from an artist and produced in his workshop. In the Netherlands, the economic boom following the conclusion of the Eighty Years’ War with Spain (1648) led to rising demand for art. Patrons began buying from dealers, some of whom produced illustrated catalogues. Antwerp became the centre of the art world. Galleries for the display and viewing of art appeared in paintings by Teniers family, §2 and Bruegel family, §3, although these were private not commercial spaces, or imaginary constructions.
The Paris Salon, which had been organized by the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture since 1667, was opened to the public for the first time in ...
Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain, and Pippa Shirley
Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, DC, 1908–90; by G(eorge) F(rederick) Bodley and others). ‘Gothic Revival’ became the standard English term when Charles Locke Eastlake published A History of the Gothic Revival (1872). The word ‘Gothic’ had by then definitely mutated from a depreciatory epithet into the denomination of a style or period of medieval architecture. To distinguish medieval Gothic from modern Gothic, most European languages used the prefix ‘neo-’ (e.g. Dut. ...
English family of artists. Daniel Havell (d ?1826) was an engraver and publisher of topographical and architectural works distinguished by a delicacy of line. He worked in London and was for a time in partnership with Robert Havell I (1769–1832), a painter, engraver and publisher. According to their descendants, Robert was undeniably Daniel’s son, though there is evidence to suggest that he may have been his uncle. The family firm engraved work by William Havell, a cousin of Daniel Havell, and a painter and traveller. Robert Havell I later became self-employed and set up in business for a time in Oxford Street with his son Robert Havell jr. In 1839 Robert Havell jr went to the USA at the invitation of John James Audubon, for whom he had engraved many of the plates for Birds of America. Ernest Binfield Havell, a great-nephew of William Havell, seems to have inherited the family love of travel and painting and became a distinguished art teacher in India and a scholar of Indian art....
(b Darmstadt, July 30, 1852; d Berlin, Nov 11, 1932).
German architect and writer. He attended the Kunstakademie, Kassel (1873), and the Bauakademie, Berlin (1874–9), where his teachers included Johann Heinrich Strack and Richard Lucae, and he won the Schinkel prize. In 1879 he took the government examination in architecture and became a government architect (1884). In 1885 he won a competition, with Peter Dybwad (1859–1921), for the Reichsgericht in Leipzig and a subsequent commission to revise the design; work was carried out on this monumental, neo-classicist law court between 1887 and 1895. In early April 1896 Hoffmann was elected city architect of Berlin, a post he retained until 1924 (see Berlin §I 4.). As city architect he was responsible for all types of public buildings in Berlin: swimming baths, bridges, fountains, monuments, fire stations, hospitals, arts and festival buildings, residential buildings, schools, social facilities, municipal and administration buildings. Notable examples include the swimming baths (...
Kevin D. Murphy
Domestic architecture in the USA comprises a wide variety of types—including detached single-family residences, row houses or town houses, apartment buildings, and more—as well as structures ranging from impermanent earth-fast dwellings of the seventeenth century to contemporary ‘McMansions’ measuring thousands of square feet in size. What makes housing important are the many ways in which it has deeply touched the lives of all Americans. Because of its diversity, the domestic architecture of the USA has been studied from a range of disciplinary perspectives, from the formal to the anthropological.
The earliest housing in America was built by native populations prior to the arrival of European settlers in the 17th century. While some was substantial, such as Pueblo Bonito (AD 910–1110) in Chaco Canyon, NM, other architecture, such as that constructed by many Native Americans in the Northeast, was transient.
While the subject of housing has sometimes been considered the purview of architectural historians, in fact, at any given historical moment, many (if not most) domestic buildings have not been designed by professional architects but by carpenters, builders, contractors, or home-owners. In the settlement period, the houses of most European Americans were earth-fast, small-scale, one-storey buildings, and were designed by their owners or builders. Given that the earliest housing in the USA was not built on stone foundations, it was perishable and little of it survives; it is known primarily through archaeological evidence. Research has shown that the earliest houses were typically constructed of locally available materials and that regional variations reflected the places of origin of the builders. For example, the 17th-century architecture of the Massachusetts Bay Colony reflected the knowledge on the part of its British settlers of existing traditions in Great Britain, although it was adapted to local circumstances. The Parson Capen House in Topsfield, MA (...
Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen
(b Abeltoft, Sept 6, 1856; d Frederiksberg, June 27, 1920).
Danish architect, painter and teacher. After technical school and apprenticeship to a bricklayer, he attended the School of Architecture of the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi in Copenhagen in 1873. He was taught by Hans Jørgen Holm, an advocate of a national style based on the free use of historically associative elements, and Ferdinand Meldahl, who espoused a more ‘correct’ and thus more international architecture. After leaving the Kunstakademi in 1878, Kampmann worked for Holm and Meldahl before going to Paris, where, at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, he learnt the ‘wet’ watercolour technique that he later passed on to his pupils Edvard Thomsen, Aage Rafn, Kay Fisker and his sons Hans Jørgen Kampmann and Christian Kampmann. He was awarded the large gold medal in 1884 and then embarked on a Grand Tour on which he executed travel sketches of Germany, Italy and Greece, capturing in watercolour textures and atmospheres.
In his buildings, logic and legibility informed Kampmann’s approach throughout. For his home town of Hjørring he built a hospital (...
(b Helsinki, May 19, 1867; d Helsinki, May 17, 1939).
Finnish architect. He studied architecture (1884–8) at the Polytechnic Institute, Helsinki, and with F. A. Sjöström (1840–85), an architect who designed several important Neo-classical buildings in Helsinki and elsewhere in Finland. Sjöström’s influence is clearly evident in Lindqvist’s student projects and early independent designs. His first important work, the Merkurius Building (1888–90), 33 Pohjoisesplanadi, Helsinki, was designed when he was 21. The façade of this building, a residential block with shops and offices on the ground and mezzanine floors, demonstrates Lindqvist’s assured handling of Neo-classical forms. It is also notable for the use of modern construction techniques, whereby the upper storeys are supported on cast-iron pillars that allow the office storeys below to be fronted with large plate-glass windows. It is not clear whether this innovation, which represented a completely new approach in Finnish architecture, was the work of Lindqvist or the master builder ...
Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen
(b Copenhagen, Jan 17, 1871; d Copenhagen, June 19, 1923).
Danish architect. After attending technical school and serving an apprenticeship as a carpenter, he was admitted to the Arkitektskole of the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen (1896), but he left in protest at the teaching (1902) to work independently. At an exhibition in 1901 he saw Gottlieb Bindesbøll’s drawings for the Thorvaldsens Museum, C. F. Harsdorff’s model for the unbuilt Frederikskirke and drawings by C. F. Hansen. He concluded that architecture and art of the late 18th and early 19th century constituted an organic unity, submitting to a common ideal. He studied the play of light and shadow to create space and how form, texture and colour had an effect on the interior space. He also studied Chinese furniture and stoneware in museums because of his desire to grasp superior manipulation of colour and textural effects of art of the Far East, as well as the command of line and shape of Neo-classicism. He worked with ceramics (...
German family of furniture-makers, active in Munich. Matthaeus Pössenbacher (fl 1770s) carved furniture for the architect François de Cuvilliés. His grandson Joseph Pössenbacher (1799–1873) founded the furniture factory that supplied the Bavarian court. Joseph’s son Anton Pössenbacher (1842–1920) became cabinetmaker to the Bavarian court, and supplied lavishly upholstered furniture in the style known as German Historicism for the residences of King Ludwig II of Bavaria (...
Alexandra Wedgwood and Roderick O’Donnell
English family of artists, of French descent. (1) A. C. Pugin came to England c. 1792 and had a successful and wide-ranging career; however, his son (2) A. W. N. Pugin, the Gothic Revival architect, is the best-known member of the family. The latter’s sons (3) E. W. Pugin, Peter Paul Pugin (1851–1904) and Cuthbert Welby Pugin (1840–1928), and his grandsons Sebastian Pugin Powell (1866–1949) and Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell (1874–1958), were all architects.A. Wedgwood: The Pugin Family: Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the RIBA (Farnborough, 1977)A. Wedgwood: A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin Family: Catalogue of Architectural Drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London, 1985)
(b Paris, 1769; d London, Dec 19, 1832).
Architect, illustrator, painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher. He probably came from an artistic family with claims to nobility, and he settled in England during the French Revolution, although the exact circumstances or date of his arrival are not known. On ...
A category of buildings designed to house retail and shopping. It includes arcades, department stores, shopping malls, strip centres, and big-box stores. Retail architecture exists in small towns, big cities, and suburbs: anywhere people congregate. It is as ubiquitous in time and space as the organized exchange of goods for money. It is distinguished from commercial architecture, which, in real estate and architectural practice, can refer more generally to any property that produces income for its investors or owners but does not refer to a building’s architectural function (i.e. retail).
Buildings housing commercial activity have existed since antiquity. Anthropologists have described exchange halls and commercial structures in many cultures, including Roman, Aztec, Tang dynasty China, and Mesopotamian. During the medieval and Renaissance periods, market halls and exchanges were built in cities such as Antwerp, Bruges, London, and Venice, sheltering trading activities at ground level and municipal government functions above (...
(b Biala, Galicia [now Bialsko-Biala, Poland], Oct 14, 1846; d Budapest, July 11, 1915).
Hungarian architect, painter and interior designer of German descent. He studied in Karlsruhe and Vienna, and in 1868 he went to Budapest where he worked first in the offices of Antal Szkalnitzky and Miklós Ybl. His designs included the sepulchral monument (1871–2) of Count Lajos Batthyány in the Kerepesi cemetery, Budapest, and other monuments and pedestals for statues. In 1894 he entered into partnership with Fülöp Herzog (1860–1925), with whom he designed the neo-classical architectural ensemble of Heroes’ Square, which terminates the 2.5 km long Radial Avenue (Sugár út, now Andrássy út). In the middle stands the Millenary Monument (1894–1900), a semicircular double colonnade with bronze figures of Hungarian sovereigns and a single, tall Corinthian column with sculpture by György Zala, which commemorates the 1000th anniversary of the Magyar conquest. On opposite sides of the square they built the Art Hall (1895–6), a porticoed red-brick structure with multicoloured terracotta decoration, and the ...
Ye. I. Kirichenko
Architectural movement adopted by the Slav peoples from the mid-18th century to the early 20th. It developed in response to rising ambitions for national identity and was reflected principally in the revival of characteristic national, regional or local styles of architecture. These tended to reflect the historical and political conditions of particular areas, and the Slav Revival did not produce a recognizably distinct overall style. Accordingly it can be considered in terms of the major national divisions: Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Bulgaria and Poland.
In Russia the first symptoms of a revival of a distinctively national architecture emerged within the framework of the European Baroque in the mid-18th century. On the initiative of the Empress Elizabeth (reg 1741–62), the traditional five-domed cathedral church form was revived in St Petersburg, for example in the naval cathedral of St Nicholas (1753–62; by Savva Chevakinsky). In the late 19th century, estate churches, mansions and park pavilions began to be built in Gothic forms. Although such forms had never existed in the medieval kingdom of Rus, they became a symbol of the revival of the country’s own national tradition and were accompanied by the use of a number of details from Russian medieval architecture. The beginning of a genuinely wide movement for the revival of Old Russian architecture came with the spread of the ‘Byzantine’ style from the late 1820s to the 1850s. The use of this term was intended to reflect the distinctive roots of Russian national culture, its affiliation to a great tradition and its distinctness from Western Europe, but it was not literally descriptive of the actual buildings to which the term was applied. These were in fact modelled on the ancient monuments of Russian rather than Byzantine architecture. Encouraged by Nicholas I (...
Elise Madeleine Ciregna
Stonecarving throughout American history has been utilized for various purposes: utilitarian work such as paving, roofing and hitching posts; and ornamental work, such as architectural elements, gravestones and monuments, and sculpture. America’s first professional stonecarvers were mainly trained, skilled artisans from England and Scotland. These men were often called “statuaries” because they were capable of producing highly ornamental carving and sculpture, similar to the work of trained academic sculptors. There was little call for such highly decorative work in the colonies, but as urban centers gradually formed, stone masons found plenty of work in newly emerging cities such as Boston, Philadelphia and New York.
In rural areas many of America’s early stonecarvers were native-born and self-taught. Their skills were most often put to use carving gravestones, which were needed in every community. Both professional and native-born stonecarvers produced beautiful, often idiosyncratic carved work. They worked in the “direct” method of carving, that is carving directly into the stone without creating a preliminary model. Botanist John Bartram designed his own stone house in Philadelphia around ...
[ Ernestos ] ( Moritz Theodor )
(b Oberlössnitz, nr Zwickau, June 22, 1837; d Athens, July 9, 1923).
German architect, designer and archaeologist, active in Greece. He studied at the Königliche Bauschule in Dresden (1855–8) and worked for Theophilus Hansen in Vienna (1858–9). Hansen brought Ziller to Greece to execute the Academy of Athens (1861–4). After an educational journey in Italy and further studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1864–8), Ziller settled in Greece. He eventually became a Greek national and rose to the positions of professor at the National Technical University of Athens (1872–82) and Director of Public Works (1884).
Ziller was the most active and influential architect of the reign of George I (reg 1863–1913). Following Hansen’s example, he adopted different morphological systems for different types of buildings. For public and residential buildings he used the Renaissance Revival style, as in Iliou Melathron (1878–80), the residence of Heinrich Schliemann and his most significant building; the house of Pavlos Melas (...