39,441-39,460 of 39,718 Results


(b nr Sigulda, Nov 30, 1876; d Riga, Sept 6, 1972).

Latvian sculptor . He studied first at the Baron Stieglitz Institute of Technical Drawing, St Petersburg (1893–9), where he was enrolled in the decorative painting and etching department, as well as learning modelling under Matvey Chizhov (1838–1916). During this time he was active in the group of Latvian art students, Gnome, the (Rūķis). In 1900–01 he studied sculpture in Rodin’s studio in Paris under Emile-Antoine Bourdelle and Paul Dubois. On his return to St Petersburg, Zaļkalns produced small sculptures for Fabergé (1901–3) and also acted as art critic (using the pseudonym Kriš Mednieks) for the newspaper Pēterburgas Avīzēs. He was head of sculpture and composition at Yekaterinburg Art College (1903–7), where his students included Ivan Shadr; he then spent two years in Florence (1907–9), acquainting himself with the Italian masters’ techniques for bronze casting and marble carving. This experience, together with his study of the art of ancient Egypt, led him to abandon his impressionistic approach, as in his female bust ...


Eleanor Sims

[Muḥammad Zamān ibn Ḥājjī Yūsuf Qumī]

(fl 1649–1704; d before 1720–21/ah 1133).

Persian painter. He was the foremost practitioner of stylistic eclecticism in 17th-century Safavid painting (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). In 20th-century writing on Persian painting he was confused with a Persian Christian called Muhammad-Paolo Zaman, who is mentioned in the Storia do Mogor, a history of Mughal India by the Venetian adventurer Niccolas Manucci (?1639–after 1712). According to Martin, for instance, Muhammad Zaman was sent by Shah ‛Abbas II to study painting in Rome in the 1640s; he returned a convert to Christianity and had to take refuge at the court of the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, who gave him an official post in Kashmir. This theory would account for the distinctive features in his painting, such as figures in European dress, an interest in atmosphere, night scenes and cast shadows, and an elusive but pervasive flavour of Mughal India. In 1962, however, this account was discredited by the publication of the ...


David Simpson

[formerly Northern Rhodesia]

Country in Southern Africa. Covering 752,614 sq. km, it is bordered by Zaïre to the north, by Malawi and Mozambique to the east, by Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south and by Angola to the west. The capital is Lusaka. Zambia gained independence in 1964. Most of the country is more than 1000 m above sea-level, with moderate temperatures and a natural vegetation of open woodland. National languages include English, Bemba, Tonga, Nyanja and Lozi. Most of the population practised subsistence agriculture until the 1950s, when commercial farming was encouraged. Zambia is comparatively industrialized and urbanized, with 40% of the population (7,804,000; UN estimate, 1989) living in urban areas; the economy went into depression in the mid-1970s following a decline in world copper prices, rising oil prices and a reduction of trade, the result of Zambia’s opposition to white minority rule in what was then Rhodesia. This entry covers the art produced in Zambia since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods, including rock art, ...



James D’Emilio

Capital of Zamora Province, León, Spain.

The Roman road from Mérida to Astorga probably crossed the River Duero at Zamora, but Roman remains are scant. From the 8th century to the 11th, possession of the city was contested by Muslims and Christians. King Ferdinand I of Castile and León (reg 1037–65) repopulated the city in the mid-11th century. The stronghold of Ferdinand’s daughter Urraca, the city was besieged by King Sancho II (reg 1065–72), whose assassination beneath its walls in 1082 was remembered in epic poems. The see, documented by the 10th century, was definitively restored in 1121, and several modest Romanesque churches (S Tomé, S Cebrián, S María la Nueva, S Claudio de Olivares, and Santiago el Viejo) attest to the building activity of the early 12th century and the development of a local school of sculptors inspired by work at Frómista, León, and Santiago de Compostela. In the second half of the 12th century and the early 13th, the multiple arches of the portals of several churches (La Magdalena, Santiago del Burgo, S María de la Orta, S Leonardo, S Juan, S Pedro, S Vicente) were richly decorated with motifs of Islamic origin, luxuriant foliage, and, at S Claudio de Olivares, a figure cycle. The new ornament can be linked to the cathedral (...


Jerzy Kowalczyk

Town in eastern Poland some 80 km south-east of Lublin. Founded in 1580 by Zamoyski family §(1) as his residence and the headquarters of his domains, and entailed from 1589, the town is a rare and fine example of surviving Polish Renaissance urban planning. It was designed for c. 3000 inhabitants, and its layout has affinities with the ideal cities described in the treatises of Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Pietro Cataneo. The principal buildings (palace, fortifications, arsenal, collegiate church, gates, town hall and burgher houses) were designed and built by Bernardo Morando within 20 years. The town and the palace (1578–86; altered in the 1820s) both lay within the 600×400 m area of the fortifications, but were originally divided by walls with a gateway and bastides on the town side. The gridded layout was dominated by the palace, with a tower and external staircase, from which the main street led eastwards through the town centre. The square between the palace and town was bounded on the south by a collegiate church (...


Adam Zamoyski and Wojciech Włodarczyk

Polish family of statesmen, soldiers and patrons . They were prominent in public life in Poland from the 16th to the 20th centuries.

(b Skokówka, nr Chełm, March 19, 1542; d Zamość, June 3, 1605).

He received one of the finest educations available in Europe during the Renaissance, attending the Sorbonne and the Collège de France (both in Paris) and the Academy of Johann Sturm (1507–89) in Strasbourg, followed by a period at the University of Padua (Italy), of which he became Rector in 1562. On his return to Poland in 1565, Zamoyski embarked on an outstanding career during which he was appointed Grand Chancellor and Hetman (commander-in-chief). As a statesman, he exerted a strong influence on the form of the Polish constitution and played a decisive part in the elections of three successive monarchs. As a soldier, he fought victorious campaigns against the Habsburgs, the Tatars, Sweden and Muscovy. At the same time he succeeded in building up one of the greatest private fortunes in Europe....


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

( fl Nuremberg, 1580s).

German goldsmith and engraver . He was recorded as a goldsmith’s apprentice in Nuremberg in 1580 but became known through his two collections of engravings, published in 1580 and 1581 (2nd edn 1584), which are essentially pattern books for goldsmiths. These engravings illustrate goblets, cups, ewers and basins decorated with sculptural animal and human heads, foliage and flowers, bunches of fruit, scrollwork and arabesques. He was probably the first to apply the goldsmith’s technique of punching to printmaking. Zan was influenced by the Netherlandish ornamental style and especially by the etchings of Georg Wechter I, which had been published shortly before. Zan was also a propagator of the type of scrollwork that gradually replaced the arabesque. His engravings acted as an important stimulus to the art of goldsmithing in the late 16th century and continued to be valued as craftsmen’s patterns until the end of the 19th century. Zan’s signature is ...


Ni Zan  

Wen Fong

[Ni Tsanzi Yuanzhenhao Yunlin]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 1301; d 1374).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. He is designated one of the Four Masters of the Yuan (1279–1368), with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen, and Wang Meng.

Ni Zan’s family were of Xixia (Tangut) origin. His tenth-generation ancestor Shi came to China as Xixia ambassador in 1034–1037 at the time of Emperor Renzong (reg 1023–1063), and the family settled in Duliang (modern Anhui Province). In 1127–1130, under Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–1162), Ni Zan’s fifth-generation ancestor Yi moved south with the Southern Song (1127–1279), settling at Zhituo village in Wuxi, modern Jiangsu Province, where the Ni family prospered. Ni Zan and his elder brother Ying were the sons of a concubine, Yan. Their father died when they were young, and they were raised by their eldest half-brother, Ni Zhaogui (1279–1328). Ying was mentally incompetent, and after Zhaogui’s death Ni Zan assumed responsibility for the family estate, a role ill-suited to his natural inclinations. He led a privileged and secluded home life for twenty or more years; in the mid-1340s he spent most of his time among rare books, antique paintings, calligraphy, and flowers in his favorite studio, the Qingbi ge (“Pure and secluded pavilion”)....


Bernard Aikema

(b Este, nr Padua, Dec 6, 1631; d Venice, April 12, 1722).

Italian painter . His first teacher was Giacomo Pedrali (d 1660), whose influence, however, is not discernible in Zanchi’s work. At an early age he travelled to Venice to study under Matteo Ponzone (1580/90–1664). The latter’s style, which was influenced by Tintoretto, played a limited role in his development; the influence of Francesco Ruschi ( fl 1643–56), originally from Rome and also active in Venice, Vicenza and Treviso, was more important during the artist’s formative years. The plasticity of the figures and the hard, almost metallic fall of the folds in the drapery that characterize his first known works, a series of etched frontispieces for opera librettos (earliest 1655: La Statira by G. F. Busenello), are certainly indebted to Ruschi. The few paintings by Zanchi that can be dated to the 1650s, such as the Entry into Jerusalem (Padua, Casa di Pena; ex-S Marta, Venice), also display similarities to Ruschi but at the same time betray a great interest in the early work of Luca Giordano and in Giovanni Battista Langetti, who had come from Genoa and worked in Venice. In the following years Zanchi adopted their stylistic traits, characterized by a strongly accentuated realism, dramatic chiaroscuro effects and a preference for violent subjects. He soon became a prominent representative of the ...



S. J. Vernoit

Dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1750 to 1794. The Zand tribe, a pastoral people from the Zagros foothills, became the dominant power in Iran after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747. Under Muhammad Karim Khan (reg 1750–79), who proclaimed himself regent (Pers. vakīl) for the Safavid puppet king Isma‛il III, the Zands brought stability to southern Iran, and from 1765 Karim Khan encouraged art and architecture ( see Islamic art, §II, 7(ii)(b) ) to flourish at Shiraz , his adopted capital. His first consideration was defence, and he rebuilt the city walls in 1767. Many of his other buildings, such as the citadel, palace and mosque with adjacent bath and bazaar, were grouped around a maidan to the north of the old city. Zand architecture is notable for its revetments in carved marble and overglaze-painted tiles with flowers, animals and people. Some themes were consciously revived from nearby Achaemenid and Sasanian sites such as Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Painting also flourished under Karim Khan (...



John Mack


Central Sudanic-speaking people, about one million in number, occupying the borderlands of Zaïre, the southern Sudan and the Central African Republic. Essentially agriculturalists, they formerly relied heavily on hunting and fishing for subsistence. The highly mixed ancestry of the Zande partly explains the diversity of their arts. They began to emerge during the 18th century from groups who were expanding from the west and exploiting the resources along the northern fringes of the forests. These groups fell under the leadership of the Avongara, the aristocratic clan of the Zande, whose princes and governors ruled the various Zande provinces. Conquered peoples were incorporated into Zande society as subjects, gradually losing their language and separate identity, but contributing their own skills to Zande culture. In addition to trade, a complex system of tribute ensured a constant circulation of goods from distant areas of Zande influence and a wide dispersal of the specialist artistic products of individual regions. Examples of Zande art are to be found, for example, in Tervuren, Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika (Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale); London, British Museum; Birchington, Powell-Cotton Museum; and Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum, as well as many other European and North American museums. Published illustrations are also very common (...


Silvia Lucchesi

(b Venice, June 2, 1841; d Paris, Dec 30, 1917).

Italian painter . His father Pietro and grandfather Luigi tried to interest him in the plastic arts, but from a very early age he showed a stronger inclination for painting. Zandomeneghi soon rebelled against their teachings, and by 1856 he was attending the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice, studying under the painters Michelangelo Grigoletti (1801–70) and Pompeo Molmenti (1819–94). As a Venetian he was born an Austrian subject, and, to escape conscription, he fled his city in 1859 and went to Pavia, where he enrolled at the university. In the following year he followed Garibaldi in the Expedition of the Thousand; afterwards, having been convicted of desertion and therefore unable to return to Venice, he went to Florence, where he remained from 1862 to 1866. This period was essential for his artistic development. In Tuscany he frequented the Florentine painters known as the Macchiaioli, with some of whom he took part in the Third Italian War of Independence (...


Gordon Campbell

American centre of ceramics production. In 1875 the American Encaustic Tile Factory was founded in Zanesville, OH, and in 1888 Samuel A. Weller moved his pottery from nearby Fultenham. Weller was followed by other potteries, such as the Roseville Pottery Company (1892) and in 1895 Weller bought the ...


Franco Bernabei

Italian family of artists and writers . (1) Anton Maria Zanetti (i) and his cousin (2) Anton Maria Zanetti (ii), often referred to as the elder and the younger, lived together in the family palazzo at S Maria Materdomini in Venice and made a significant contribution to the cultural life of that city in the mid-18th century. Both were draughtsmen, the elder also being an accomplished printmaker and collector and the younger a notable art historian. Girolamo Zanetti, younger brother of Anton Maria (ii), was a writer chiefly known for Dell’origine di alcune arti principali appresso i Viniziani (Venice, 1758); he also collaborated with Anton Maria the elder on Dactyliotheca zanettiana and wrote a memorial note on his brother.

(b Venice, Feb 20, 1680; d Venice, Dec 31, 1767).

Draughtsman, printmaker and collector . He studied with Nicolò Bambini (1651–1736), Sebastiano Ricci and Antonio Balestra, and around the age of 20 he spent some time in Bologna, which initiated his lifelong admiration for Bolognese painting. Thereafter he worked in Venice as an engraver, meeting such foreign scholars as Pierre-Jean Mariette and Pierre Crozat and pursuing his interests as a collector. A journey to Paris and London between ...


Paulo J. V. Bruna

revised by Alana Hernandez

(b São Paulo, 1934).

Brazilian architect and teacher. He graduated in 1959 from the Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning at the University of São Paulo, where he received a PhD in 1972. He belonged to the third generation of modern architects in Brazil, benefiting from the opportunities presented by rapid industrialization, the founding of Brasília, and the intensive urbanization of the cities. In 1964 he became Professor of Planning at the University of São Paulo. His preoccupation with social concerns was reflected in his approach to planning for housing, education, and health in the city’s suburbs. From this experience came a variety of architectural experiments with timber, steel, reinforced concrete, and techniques that combine industrial components with the abundant unskilled labor available in the large cities. In 1968 he won a competition for the construction of a maternity hospital at Vila Nova Cachoeirinha, on the outskirts of São Paulo, on which he worked for three years with a large interdisciplinary team and with the local population. He also designed a number of primary schools and banks, such as the Banco do Estado de São Paulo (...



Islamic dynasty which ruled in northern Iraq, south-east Anatolia and Syria from 1127 to 1222. In 1127 ‛Imad al-Din Zangi, the son of a Turkish commander in the Saljuq army, was appointed governor of Mosul for the Saljuq sultan and guardian (Turk. atabeg) for his sons. The semi-independent Zangi expanded his dominion north and west and was granted Aleppo in 1129. He fought against the crusaders, most notably at Edessa in 1144. Zangi was succeeded by two independent branches of the family in Mosul and Aleppo. His son Nur al-Din (reg in Aleppo 1146–74) conquered Damascus in 1154, opposed the crusaders and sent his generals Shirkuh and Salah al-Din to Egypt, where the latter founded the Ayyubid dynasty. The Ayyubids succeeded the Zangids in Aleppo in 1183 and in Damascus in 1186.

Nur al-Din, a staunch Sunni, built many religious institutions, and fortified Aleppo, Damascus and other key sites. During his reign there was a Classical Revival in Syrian architecture as well as a wholehearted adoption of symmetrical building plans and forms, such as the iwan, typical of Abbasid architecture in Iraq. In his hospital (...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Fidenza, Sept 4, 1748; d Parma, Aug 12, 1821).

Italian writer . He was the author of the voluminous Enciclopedia metodica critico ragionata delle belle arti, a work that remains useful. Two editions are known: the first in eight volumes (Parma, 1794), the second in 28 (Parma, 1819–22), of which the first 19 constitute a dictionary of artists, the rest being devoted to the graphic arts. The dictionary section covers painters, sculptors, architects, draughtsmen, critics, collectors and others, each of whom is very briefly described through the use of an elaborate coding system. This gives details of nationality, dates of birth and death, scope of media and occupation, and even a ranking of merit, ranging from ‘bravissimo’ down to ‘molto mediocre’ in five stages

Enciclopedia metodica critico ragionata delle belle arti, 8 vols (Parma, 1794), rev., 28 vols (Parma, 1819–22) Bolaffi; Thieme–Becker

Italy, §XVII, 2: Historiography, 17th–20th centuries

Niello print, §2: History ...


(b Florence or Rome; d Vilnius, Lithuania, 1541).

Italian architect and sculptor, active in Poland and Lithuania . Until 1529 he served as an assistant to the architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Berrecci in his work on the Sigismund Chapel, Kraków Cathedral. In about 1531 he founded an architectural–sculptural partnership with Giovan Battista Cini (d 1565) and Filippo da Fiesole (d 1540), also former collaborators of Berrecci. Their main achievement was the cathedral in Płock (1532–41): a basilica with a nave in three bays, aisles, transept with apse and a dome (raised in height, 1901–3), it was the only imitation north of the Alps of Renaissance basilicas of the type built in Rome by Florentine architects in the last quarter of the 15th century, e.g. S Agostino (1479–83) and S Maria del Popolo (1472–80). In July 1534 Zanobi and his associates entered into a contract to rebuild the cathedral in Vilnius (begun ...


Giovanna Perini

( Cavazzoni )

(b Paris, Oct 4, 1674; d Bologna, Sept 28, 1765).

Italian writer, painter and poet . He trained as a painter with Lorenzo Pasinelli and was active mainly in Bologna. Although his painting, as exemplified by such works as Joseph Retrieving the Silver Cup from Benjamin’s Sack (Bologna, Credito Romagnolo), was undistinguished, being a weak blend of classicist clichés and the graceful Rococo palette derived from Pasinelli, Zanotti was a friend of many outstanding men of letters and wrote widely on subjects connected with art. In 1710 he contributed a defence of Guido Reni’s works in the controversy between Domenico Bouhours and Giovan Gioseffo Orsi concerning the concepts of ‘delicateness’ and ‘weakness’ in painting. By that date he had already published a number of works, including a biography (1703) of Pasinelli, a defence (1705) of Carlo Cesare Malvasia’s Felsina pittrice (1678), which championed the late Baroque Bolognese tradition, and a revised edition (1706) of ...