- Bent Nielsen
[ Chang Feng ; zi Dafeng ; hao Shangyuan Laoren , Shengzhou Daoshi ]
(b Shangyuan, Shengzhou (now Nanjing, Jiangsu Province); flc. 1645–62).
Chinese painter, poet, seal-carver and government official . Like many of his literati colleagues, he remained loyal to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) after it had been overthrown by the Manchus and withdrew from office to live as a Buddhist recluse. He led a life of relative poverty, occasionally enjoying the patronage of the nobility, which allowed him to pursue a variety of scholarly activities. In his paintings he concentrated on landscapes ( see fig. ), flowers and figures. A contemporary of the Eight Masters of Nanjing ( see Nanjing school ), Zhang remained an independent artist in the cultured milieu of the south. Initially, he was influenced by the painters of the Yuan period (1279–1368), notably Huang Gongwang and Ni Zan, and emulated their subjective expressionism and daring brushwork, as for example in Figure between Rocks and a Twisted Tree (1648; Hong Kong, Chin. U.). Around ...