(b Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, 7 Feb 1910; d Beijing, 10 June 1985). Chinese archaeologist. He gained his diploma in history at Qinghua University, Beijing, in July 1937, then studied at the Institute of Archaeology, University of London, under Mortimer Wheeler. He received his doctorate in 1939, with a dissertation on Egyptian archaeology. At the beginning of World War II he spent more than a year at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
After his return to China in 1941, Xia directed several excavations, particularly in Gansu Province. He was able to refute Johan Gunnar Andersson’s (1874–1960) early datings for the Qijia culture, discovered by Andersson in Guanghe County, Gansu. Xia showed that the Qijia culture dates to c. 2000–c. 1600 bc, after, not before, the Yangshao culture ( see also China, People’s Republic of §VIII 3., (i), (b) ). In autumn 1951 he led the excavations of the Warring States (...