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date: 19 October 2019

Tibet [Tib. Bod; Chin. Xizang Zizhiqu; Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China]locked

  • Heather Stoddard-Karmay,
  • Gilles Béguin,
  • Deborah E. Klimburg-Salter,
  • N. G. Ronge,
  • Veronika Ronge,
  • Paola Mortari Vergara Caffarelli,
  • Chandra L. Reedy,
  • Jane Casey Singer,
  • Günter Grönbold,
  • Philip Denwood,
  • Joe Cribb,
  • John Clarke,
  • Mireille Helffer,
  • Yoshiro Imaeda,
  • David Jones
  •  and Amy Heller


[Tib. Bod; Chin. Xizang Zizhiqu; Tibetan Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China]

Himalayan region bordered by India, Nepal, Bhutan and Burma to the west and south and by China to the north and east. An independent country until 1951, it is presently controlled by China. With a historical cultural relevance extending far beyond the borders of the present Tibetan Autonomous Region, Tibet and its art—largely based on Vajrayana Buddhism—are becoming increasingly better known worldwide. The activities of an articulate Tibetan community in exile since the late 1950s and a growing international interest in Tibetan Buddhism have given impetus to the appreciation of Tibetan culture, as have spectacular special exhibitions of its art (see §VIII below).

D. L. Snell and H. E. Richardson: A Cultural History of Tibet (London, 1968/R London and Boulder, 1980) R. A. Stein: Tibetan Civilisation (London, 1972, 2/Paris, 1981) G. Tucci: Tibet (Geneva, 1975) S. Batchelor: The Tibet Guide (London, 1987)

The Tibetan language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of languages; the ...

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