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date: 15 October 2019


  • Anne Riches,
  • Duncan Macmillan,
  • W. T. Johnston,
  • Rosalind K. Marshall,
  • Veronica Steele,
  • Ian Gow,
  • David Jones,
  • G. R. Haggarty,
  • Brian J. R. Blench,
  • David H. Caldwell,
  • George R. Dalgleish,
  • Naomi Tarrant,
  • John Morrison,
  • M. A. Forrest,
  • Jennifer Melville
  •  and Patricia Brookes


Region of the United Kingdom bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and by the North Sea to the east; it is bordered to the south by England. The west coast in particular is broken by lochs, and the mainland is surrounded by many islands including the Inner and Outer Hebrides, the Orkneys, and the Shetlands. The administrative arrangements for the mainland were altered with effect from 1 April 1996, when 29 unitary councils replaced the 9 regional and 53 district councils. The three Islands councils for Orkney, Shetland, and Western Isles remained unchanged. In this article places on the Scottish mainland are cited with a location within one of the 9 regional councils that existed until April 1996. These are: Highland, Grampian, Tayside, Central, Fife, Lothian, Strathclyde, Dumfries and Galloway, and Borders (see fig.). The landmass of Scotland is 78,762 sq. km and the population is ...

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R. Gunnis: Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660–1851 (London, 1951, rev. 2/1968)