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date: 21 November 2019

Russia [Russian Federation]locked

  • V. Ya. Petrukhin,
  • A. I. Komech,
  • Ye. I. Kirichenko,
  • N. A. Yevsina,
  • A. V. Ikonnikov,
  • G. I. Vzdornov,
  • M. M. Allenov,
  • M. N. Sokolov,
  • Mariya A. Nekrasova,
  • I. Pronina,
  • Antoine Cheneviere,
  • Sergey Kuznetsov,
  • Nina Lobanov-Rostovsky,
  • Alexander Von Solodkoff,
  • Anne Odom,
  • Ivan Samarin,
  • Jennifer Wearden,
  • Svetlana M. Chervonnaya
  •  and V. S. Turchin


[Russian Federation]

Country largely in Asia, with its capital at Moscow. It is the world’s largest country in area, reaching from the Gulf of Finland to the Pacific, and from the Arctic to the Black and Caspian Seas, covering 11 time zones (see fig. and detail).

The European part of Russia has been occupied since prehistoric times. The main focal points of Old Russian culture were southern Rus’ headed by Kiev, north-western Rus’ headed by Novgorod, and north-eastern Rus’ headed by Rostov and Vladimir–Suzdal’. North-western and north-eastern Rus’ form part of what later became Russia. Kiev, however, played a major role. Commercial exploration of the northern Volga region, mostly tribal, led to the establishment of the state of Kievan Rus’ (now part of Russia, Belarus’ and Ukraine; see Ukraine, §I) in the late 10th century, and Christianity was adopted by its leader Vladimir I (...

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