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date: 05 December 2019

Poland, Republic of [Polska]locked

  • Andrzej Rottermund,
  • Andrzej Szczerski,
  • Adam Miłobędzki,
  • Bożena Steinborn,
  • Anna Brzyski,
  • Konstanty Kalinowski,
  • Anna Bentkowska,
  • Halina Chojnacka,
  • Tadeusz Chrzanowski
  •  and Zdzisław Żygulski



Country in north-eastern Europe. It is bordered by Germany, Russia, Lithuania, Belarus’, Ukraine, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. The territory of Poland covers c. 312,700 sq. km and extends from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Carpathian Mountains in the south (see fig.). Its western frontier is today formed by the rivers Odra and Nysa Łużycka, and the eastern frontier, historically more unsettled, currently follows the course of the River Bug. The principal geographic regions of Poland include the mountain regions in the south, bordered to the north by upland areas and valleys including the historical province of Małopolska (Lesser Poland); these gradually give way to the Central Polish Plain, the Silesian Plain, and the Mazovian Plain, the lake districts of Wielkopolska (Greater Poland), Pomerania, and Masuria, and the coastal plains of western and eastern Pomerania. The Polish state, first established in the 10th century, grew to encompass an area more than twice its present size during union with Lithuania in the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, but at the end of the 18th century it was completely partitioned between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. Poland became an independent nation-state again in ...

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Slownik artystów polskich i obcych w Polsce dzialjacych [Dictionary of Polish and foreign artists working in Poland] (Wroclaw, 1971)