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date: 24 October 2019

Jerusalem [Heb. Yerushalayim; Arab. al-Quds]locked

  • Jerome Murphy O’Connor,
  • Michael Turner,
  • Sheila S. Blair,
  • Jonathan M. Bloom,
  • Leen Ritmeyer,
  • Robert Hillenbrand
  •  and Alan Borg

Extract

[Heb. Yerushalayim; Arab. al-Quds]

City sacred to the three monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, now in Israel. It is built on limestone hills in the central plateau of Judaea, and limited by the Kidron Valley on the east and the Hinnom Valley on the west and south.

Following Jerusalem’s inclusion in the Roman and Byzantine empires, Muslim forces captured Jerusalem in 638 and ruled it until 1099, when European Crusaders captured the city and transformed many of its Muslim monuments. They held it until 1187, when Saladin reconquered the city for Islam. Subsequently held by the Mamluk (to 1516) and Ottoman sultans, the city became the administrative centre of the British mandate in Palestine during World War I. In 1949 Israel declared that [west] Jerusalem was its capital city; following the annexation of East Jerusalem in the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel unilaterally declared that [undivided] Jerusalem was the capital of Israel, although Palestinians continue to maintain that East Jerusalem must be the capital of a future Palestinian state....

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Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1954–)
J. P. Migne, ed.: Patrologia cursus completus…series Graeca, 162 vols (Paris, 1857–1912)