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Jalayirid family [Jalā’irid]locked

  • Basil Gray

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[Jalā’irid]

Islamic dynasty that ruled in Iraq and Azerbaijan from 1336 to 1432. A Mongol family that established itself in Baghdad after the Ilkhanid sultanate began to collapse, the Jalayirids vied with the Muzaffarid and Qaraqoyunlu dynasties, as well as with the Golden Horde and the Timurid dynasty. The Jalayirids lost Azerbaijan to the Qaraqoyunlu after the Timurid invasion, and in 1412 the Qaraqoyunlu took Baghdad. The last Jalayirids were vassals of the Timurids. The architecture of the early Jalayirids (see Islamic art, §II, 6(i)(a)) apparently continued earlier local styles, with superb geometric brick and stucco decoration and fine inscriptions. The major building to survive in Baghdad is the funerary complex (1356–9) built by Mirjan, the amir who governed the city for the Jalayirids. It includes a madrasa and a caravanserai, the Khan al-Mirjan (or Khan al-Urtma), with a glum interior nevertheless well lit by windows under transverse barrel vaults. Several metal wares can be identified with Jalayirid patronage on the basis of inscriptions, but the art form most closely associated with the dynasty, particularly with ...

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Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1954–)