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Map of the territories of the ancient Greek civilization; those areas with separate entrie....

Map of the territories of the ancient Greek civilization; those areas with separate entries in this dictionary are distinguished by Cross-reference type

Map of ancient Greece and related Aegean sites; those areas with separate entries in this ....

Map of ancient Greece and related Aegean sites; those areas with separate entries in this dictionary are distinguished by Cross-reference type

Chronological chart showing generally accepted dates for the development of Greek architec....

Chronological chart showing generally accepted dates for the development of Greek architecture, sculpture and pottery

Attic Red-figure pelike

Attic Red-figure pelike depicting a lampadedromia (torch race), possibly during the Panathenaic festival, 5th century bc (Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Model of a temple dedicated to Hera, from Argos, terracotta, l. 368 mm, mid–8th century BC....

Model of a temple dedicated to Hera, from Argos, terracotta, l. 368 mm, mid–8th century bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo credit: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY

Greek temple plans: (a) Megaron B, Thermon, ?late 8th century BC; (b) second Temple of Apo....

Greek temple plans: (a) Megaron B, Thermon, ?late 8th century bc; (b) second Temple of Apollo, Thermon, c. 620 bc; (c) Temple of Hera, Olympia, c. 590 bc; (d) first Temple of Hera, Paestum, mid-6th century bc; (e) Temple of Hephaistos (Hephaisteion), Athens, c. 450–c. 445 bc; (f) Temple of Artemis, Ephesos, c. 560–c. 460 bc; (g) Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, begun c. 340 bc

Temple elevation, sectional view of the front of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina: (a) capital....

Temple elevation, sectional view of the front of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina: (a) capital; (b) architrave; (c) taenia; (d) regula; (e) guttae; (f) frieze; (g) triglyph; (h) metope; (i) cornice; (j) mutule; (k) entablature; (l) pediment; (m) echinus; (n) abacus; (o) slanting cornice; (p) corona; (q) akroterion

Paestum, Sanctuary of Hera, ‘Basilica’, c. 550–525 BC; photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Res....

Paestum, Sanctuary of Hera, ‘Basilica’, c. 550–525 bc; photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Plan of the agora at Miletos, c. 175–c. 165 BC: (a) bouleuterion; (b) stoas; (c) square....

Plan of the agora at Miletos, c. 175–c. 165 bc: (a) bouleuterion; (b) stoas; (c) square

Greek domestic architecture, house types: (a) megaron or prostas type, Priene, c. 350 BC o....

Greek domestic architecture, house types: (a) megaron or prostas type, Priene, c. 350 bc onwards; (b) pastas type with peristyle court, Olynthos isolated villa, 4th century bc; (c) pastas type, Olynthos, c. 432 bc; (d) pastas type with peristyle court, Delos, 2nd century bc

State burial chamber on the road to the Academy, Athens, late 5th century BC; reconstructi....

State burial chamber on the road to the Academy, Athens, late 5th century bc; reconstruction

Types of lifting device: (a) handling boss; (b) closed U-shaped channel; (c) open U-shaped....

Types of lifting device: (a) handling boss; (b) closed U-shaped channel; (c) open U-shaped furrow

Types of clamp for bonding masonry blocks: (a)–(c) dovetail, 7th–6th century BC; (d)–(f) d....

Types of clamp for bonding masonry blocks: (a)–(c) dovetail, 7th–6th century bc; (d)–(f) double-gamma and double-T, 5th–4th century bc; (g) pi-shaped, 4th century bc

Mouldings and motifs on the entablature of the Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, begun c. 3....

Mouldings and motifs on the entablature of the Temple of Athena Polias, Priene, begun c. 340 bc; restoration: (a) cornice crowned by small convex moulding and flat fillet; (b) egg and tongue; (c) bead and reel; (d) cyma reversa moulding on abacus, decorated with leaf and dart; (e) cyma recta moulding on gutter, decorated with lion-head spouts, palmettes and vegetal motifs

Archaic-period Temple of Aphaia, Aigina, c. 500–c. 490 BC; restored cutaway view....

Archaic-period Temple of Aphaia, Aigina, c. 500–c. 490 bc; restored cutaway view

Temple of Apollo, Bassai, interior of cella, 429–c. 405 BC; reconstruction drawing....

Temple of Apollo, Bassai, interior of cella, 429–c. 405 bc; reconstruction drawing

Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa), Agora, Athens, late 6th century BC; restored elevation....

Stoa Basileios (Royal Stoa), Agora, Athens, late 6th century bc; restored elevation

Theatre at Epidauros, c. 350–c. 330 BC; photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY....

Theatre at Epidauros, c. 350–c. 330 bc; photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Incised stone measure representing Attic foot, inscribed ‘pous’ (foot), from Gortyn, Crete....

Incised stone measure representing Attic foot, inscribed ‘pous’ (foot), from Gortyn, Crete, late Hellenistic–early Imperial; reconstruction drawing (original now lost)

Measuring table in stone with standard tile sizes and measures of length, from Assos, ?Hel....

Measuring table in stone with standard tile sizes and measures of length, from Assos, ?Hellenistic; reconstruction drawing (original now lost)

Proportional measurements illustrated by the Archilochos Capital from Paros, mid-6th centu....

Proportional measurements illustrated by the Archilochos Capital from Paros, mid-6th century bc (inscription 4th century bc) (Paros, Archaeological Museum)

Refinements shown in exaggerated form on a Doric temple....

Refinements shown in exaggerated form on a Doric temple

Acropolis at Athens, view from the south-west; Photo credit: Vann/Art Resource, NY....

Acropolis at Athens, view from the south-west; Photo credit: Vann/Art Resource, NY

Dura Europos, plan of the city c. 300 BC; reconstruction drawing....

Dura Europos, plan of the city c. 300 bc; reconstruction drawing

Diskobolos by Myron, marble copy of bronze original of c. 450 BC, h. 1.55 m (Rome, Museo N....

Diskobolos by Myron, marble copy of bronze original of c. 450 bc, h. 1.55 m (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); Photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Epigonos of Pergamon: Dying Gaul, Hellenistic period, c. 230–c. 220 BC; marble copy, h. 93....

Epigonos of Pergamon: Dying Gaul, Hellenistic period, c. 230–c. 220 bc; marble copy, h. 930 mm (Rome, Museo Capitolino); photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Corfu, Temple of Artemis

Corfu, Temple of Artemis, detail of the west pediment, c. 590 bc (Corfu, Archaeological Museum); photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Metope showing a Centauromachy, marble, h. 1.72 m, from the south side of the Parthenon, A....

Metope showing a Centauromachy, marble, h. 1.72 m, from the south side of the Parthenon, Athens, High Classical, c. 440 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Gigantomachy, from the north frieze of the Siphinian Treasury at Delphi, marble, h. 640 mm....

Gigantomachy, from the north frieze of the Siphinian Treasury at Delphi, marble, h. 640 mm, Late Archaic period, c. 525 bc (Delphi, Archaeological Museum); photo credit: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY

Athens, part of the east frieze from the Parthenon, showing marshals and young women in th....

Athens, part of the east frieze from the Parthenon, showing marshals and young women in the Panathenaic procession, marble,c. 438–c. 432 bc (London, British Museum); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Halikarnossos, Mausoleum, sculpted frieze showing Amazonomachy, marble, h. 900 mm, c. 370–....

Halikarnossos, Mausoleum, sculpted frieze showing Amazonomachy, marble, h. 900 mm, c. 370–c. 350 bc (London, British Museum); photo credit: Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY

Relief of a running hoplite

Relief of a running hoplite (?Pyrrhic dancer), marble, h. 1.0 m, probably from a sepulchral monument, Late Archaic period, c. 500 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Grave stele of the young girl Aristylla

Grave stele of Aristylla, erected by her parents Ariston and Rodille, marble, h. 870 mm, from Peiraeus, High Classical period, c. 440–c. 430 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Votive relief showing actors making offering to Dionysus

Votive relief, showing actors making offering to Dionysius, marble, 550×930 mm, High Classical period, c. 410 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Zeus or Poseidon

Zeus or Poseidon, bronze, h. 2.09 m, from Cape Artemision, High Classical period, c. 450 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Rampin Horseman, marble, h. 293 mm, c. 560 BC (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Réun....

Rampin Horseman, marble, h. 293 mm, c. 560 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY

Grave stele showing the deceased, Aristion

Aristokles (attrib.): grave stele showing the deceased, Aristion, marble, h. 2.02 m, Late Archaic period, c. 520–c. 510 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Votive relief of a chariot scene

Votive relief, fragment showing chariot scene with warriors, marble, h. 600 mm, High Classical period, c. 400 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

River god (?Ilissos), from the west pediment of the Parthenon, Athens, marble, l. 1.56 m, ....

River god (?Ilissos), from the west pediment of the Parthenon, Athens, marble, l. 1.56 m, High Classical period, c. 438–432 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Preparation for the Chariot Race between Pelops and Oinomaos, h. 3.3 m, l. 26.4 m, east pe....

Preparation for the Chariot Race between Pelops and Oinomaos, h. 3.3 m, l. 26.4 m, east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Early Classical, c. 470–457 bc; reconstruction

Two workmen heating a metallurgical furnace, while a third pieces together a life-size bro....

Two workmen heating a metallurgical furnace, while a third pieces together a life-size bronze statue of an athlete, detail from the Berlin Foundry Cup, Attic Red-figure, diam. 305 mm, from Vulci, Late Archaic, c. 490–c. 480 bc (Berlin, Antikenmuseum); photo credit: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY

Man on Horseback

Man on Horseback, shown in a ‘deity’ pose, fragment of a leg from a tripod stand, bronze, Geometric period, c. 760 bc (Olympia, Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Kore type statuette

Kore-type statuette, marble, originally one of three supporting figures from the base of a perirrhanterion, from the Ptoion sanctuary to Apollo in Boiotia, Early Archaic Daidalic period (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Lady of Auxerre

Lady of Auxerre, detail, from ?Crete, limestone, h. 647 mm, Early Archaic perod c. 650–c. 625 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Kore dedicated by Nikandre of Naxos to Artemis

Kore dedicated by Nikandre of Naxos to Artemis, marble, h. 1.75 m, from Delos, c. 650 bc (Athens, Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Quadriga

Quadriga from a frontal dedicatory chariot relief, marble, h. 500 mm, Archaic period, c. 570 bc (Athens, Acropolis Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Anavysos Kouros

Anavysos Kouros (Kroisos), from Anavysos, marble , h. 1.93 m, c. 525 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Dying Warrior, Parian marble, h. 640 mm, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia at....

Dying Warrior, Parian marble, h. 640 mm, from the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina, Late Archaic period, c. 490–c. 480 bc (Munich, Glyptothek); Photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Kritios Boy, marble, h. 1.17 m, from the Acropolis, Athens, Late Archaic period, c. 480 BC....

Kritios Boy, marble, h. 1.17 m, from the Acropolis, Athens, Late Archaic period, c. 480 bc (Athens, Acropolis Museum); photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Sphinx

Sphinx, from the top of an Attic grave stele, marble, h. 450 mm, Archaic period, c. 570 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Limestone fragment of a woman

Limestone fragment of a woman, h. 390 mm, from a metope from the acropolis at Mycenae, Early Archaic Daidalic period, c. 630 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Youth crowning himself

Sounion, votive relief of a youth crowning himself, marble, 480×500 mm, from Sounion, Early Classical period, c. 470–c. 460 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Warrior (Statue A), bronze, h. 1.98 m, from Riace, High Classical period, c. 455–c. 450 BC....

Warrior (Statue A), bronze, h. 1.98 m, from Riace, High Classical period, c. 455–c. 450 bc (Reggio Calabria, Museo Nazionale); photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Grave stele of Philokles

Grave stele with pediment, dedicated to ‘Philokles, son of Dikaios; Dikaios, son of Philokles’, marble, h. 930 mm, found at Chalandri, Attica, High Classical period, c. 430 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Marble grave stele of a little girl

Dove Stele (grave stele of a little girl), Parian marble, h. 31 1/2 in. (80 cm), ca. 450–440 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, 1927, Accession ID:27.45); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130013380

Hestia, Dione (or Themis) and Aphrodite, marble, h. 1.3 m (highest fig.), from the east pe....

Hestia, Dione (or Themis) and Aphrodite, marble, h. 1.3 m (highest fig.), from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Athens, High Classical period, c. 437–c. 432 bc (London, British Museum); Photo credit: Art Resource, NY

Grave stele of Mnesagora and her brother Nikochares

Grave stele of Mnesagora and her brother Nikochares, erected by their parents, marble, h. 1.19 m, from Attica, High Classical period, c. 440–c. 430 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Grave stele of Ktesilaos and Theano

Grave stele of Ktesilaos and Theano, marble, h. 930 mm, High Classical period, c. 400–c. 390 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Athens, part of west frieze from the Temple of Athena Nike, on the Acropolis, marble, h. 4....

Athens, part of west frieze from the Temple of Athena Nike, on the Acropolis, marble, h. 445 mm, c. 425 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Frieze showing an Amazonomachy, marble, l. 1.78 m, from the interior of the Temple of Apol....

Frieze showing an Amazonomachy, marble, l. 1.78 m, from the interior of the Temple of Apollo at Bassai, High Classical, c. 420–400 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Grave stele of Ameinokleia

Grave stele of Ameinokleia, daughter of Andromenes, marble, h. 1.37 m, Late Classical period, 4th century bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Grave stele of Damasistrate

Grave stele of Damasistrate, showing dexiosis, marble, h. 1.12 m, Late Classical period, first half of 4th century bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Combat between Calavaryman and Infantryman

Combat between Cavalryman and Infantryman, marble, from a base with three-sided relief, Late Classical period, 4th century bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Hunt of the Calydonian Boar

Sarcophagus relief showing Hunt of the Calydonian Boar, including figures ofAtalanta, left and Meleager, right, marble, Hellenistic period (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICThttp://arthist.cla.umn.edu/aict/html

Statue of an old market woman

Old Market Woman, Pentelic marble, h. 49 5/8 in. (125.98 cm), 2nd century BC or 1st century AD (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1909, Accession ID:09.39); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130008606

Hellenistic Ruler, bronze, h. 2.37 m, c. 150–140 BC (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); photo ....

Hellenistic Ruler, bronze, h. 2.37 m, c.150–140 bc (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Zeus

Eukleides (attrib.): Zeus, head from a colossal seated statue, found at Aigeira in the northern Peloponnese, marble, h. 870 mm, Hellenistic period, 2nd century bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Alexandros of Antioch on the Meander: Venus de Milo, marble, h. 2.04 m, Hellenistic period....

Alexandros of Antioch on the Maeander: Venus de Milo, marble, h. 2.04 m, Hellenistic period, c. 150–c. 120 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); Photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Sounion Kouros

‘Sounion Kouros’, marble, h. 3.05 m, from Sounion, Early Archaic period, c. 600 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Boxer, bronze, h. 1.28 m, 2nd or early 1st century BC (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); phot....

Boxer, bronze, h. 1.28 m, 2nd or early 1st century bc (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Sleeping Satyr (Barberini Faun), marble, h. 2.16 m, c. 230–200 BC (Munich, Glyptothek); Ph....

Sleeping Satyr (Barberini Faun), marble, h. 2.16 m, c. 230–200 bc (Munich, Glyptothek); Photo credit: Vanni/ Art Resource, NY

Brygos Painter (attrib.): Cup depicting Symposium Scene (detail), diam. 320 mm, Attic Red-....

Brygos Painter (attrib.): Cup depicting Symposium Scene (detail), diam. 320 mm, Attic Red-figure, c. 490–480 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Youths at a Banquet

Attic Red-figure cup: Youths at a Banquet, diam. 240 mm, c. 480 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY

Volute krater by the Berlin Painter (attrib.): Achilles Fighting Hector, Attic Red-figure,....

Volute krater by the Berlin Painter (attrib.): Achilles Fighting Hector, Attic Red-figure, h. 635 mm, c. 500–480 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Terracotta amphoriskos (flask) in the form of a bird-man

Amphoriskos in the form of a bird-man, h. 178 mm, late 5th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Mr. and Mrs. Christos G. Bastis Gift, 1999, Accession ID: 1999.68); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Loutrophoros, Attic Black-figure, depicting a prothesis

Loutrophoros, Attic Black-figure, depicting a prothesis, h. 705 mm, late 6th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Funds from various donors, 1927, Accession ID: 27.228); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Vase shapes from Attica, 6th–4th centuries BC ....

Vase shapes from Attica, 6th–4th centuries bc

Inscription on the tondo on an Attic Red-figure cup by Douris: Eos Carrying the Dead Memno....

Inscription on the tondo on an Attic Red-figure cup by Douris: Eos Carrying the Dead Memnon, diam. 260 mm, c. 490–c. 480 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Réunion des Musées Nationaux/Art Resource, NY

Terracotta krater

Hirschfeld Painter Workshop (attrib.): Krater, terracotta, H. 42 5/8 in. (108.3 cm) diameter 28 1/2 in. (72.4 cm), Attic Late Geometric, ca. 750–735 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1914, Accession ID:14.130.14); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130009382

Euboian Geometric ovoid krater with lid by the Cesnola Painter

Euboian Geometric ovoid krater with lid by the Cesnola Painter, h. 1.15 m, lg i, c. 750 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Cesnola Collection, Purchased by subscription, 1874–76, Accession ID: 74.51.965); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Macmillan Painter (attrib.): Aryballos with lion-head mouth, Second Black-figure style, h.....

Macmillan Painter (attrib.): Aryballos with lion-head mouth, Second Black-figure style, h. 68 mm, mpc, c. 640 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Cyclades Orientalizing jug with a griffin-head spout, Linear Island group, h. 415 mm, from....

Cyclades Orientalizing jug with a griffin-head spout, Linear Island group, h. 415 mm, from ?Paros, c. 675–650 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

East Greek Orientalizing bowl, Middle Wild Goat style, diam. 380 mm, from Chios, c. 600 BC....

East Greek Orientalizing bowl, Middle Wild Goat style, diam. 380 mm, from Chios, c. 600 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Attic Black-figure dinos (the Erskine Dinos) by Sophilos: Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, h....

Attic Black-figure dinos (the Erskine Dinos) by Sophilos: Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, h. 710 mm, c. 580 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Attic Black-figure volute krater (the François Vase) by Kleitas and Ergotimos, h. 660 mm, ....

Attic Black-figure volute krater (the François Vase) by Kleitas and Ergotimos, h. 660 mm, c. 600–c. 560 bc (Florence, Museo Archeologico di Firenze); photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Attic Black-figure neck amphora by the Andokides potter, depicting a chariot and rider

Attic Black-figure neck amphora by the Andokides potter, depicting a chariot and rider, 264 mm,c. 540 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Christos G. Bastis, in honor of Carlos A. Picón, 1999, Accession ID: 1999.30a, b); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Exekias: Neck amphora with Achilles killing the Amazon Queen Penthesilea, h. 416 mm, Attic....

Exekias: Neck amphora with Achilles killing the Amazon Queen Penthesilea, h. 416 mm, Attic black-figure, c. 540–530 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Attic Black-figure Panathenaic Amphora by the Euphiletos Painter, depicting male sprinters

Attic Black-figure Panathenaic amphora by the Euphiletos Painter, depicting male sprinters, h. 622 mm, c. 530 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1914, Accession ID: 14.130.12); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Epiktetos: Plate depicting Archer, diam. 194 mm, Attic Red-figure, c. 520–500 BC (London, ....

Epiktetos: Plate depicting Archer, diam. 194 mm, Attic Red-figure, c. 520–500 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Terracotta kylix (drinking cup)

Attic Red-figure kylix attributed to the Briseis Painter, depicting a triton, diam. 307 mm,c. 480 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1953, Accession ID: 53.11.4); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Attic Red-figure kalyx krater by the Niobid Painter: Apollo and Artemis Slaying the Niobid....

Attic Red-figure kalyx krater by the Niobid Painter: Apollo and Artemis Slaying the Niobids, c. 460–c. 450 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Giraudon/Art Resource, NY

Two Women, One Playing a Lyre

Attic Red-figure pelike by Polygnotos: Two Women, One Playing a Lyre, c. 450–c. 425 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Kodros Painter (attrib.): Cup depicting Exploits of Theseus, h. 128 mm, diam. 330 mm, Atti....

Kodros Painter (attrib.): Cup depicting Exploits of Theseus, h. 128 mm, diam. 330 mm, Attic Red-figure, c. 440–430 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Couple Pouring a Libation above an Altar

Attic Red-figure pelike by the Argos Painter: Couple Pouring a Libation above an Altar, c. 480–470 bc (Paris, Musée du Louvre); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Attic Red-figure hydria by the Meidias Painter: Rape of the Leucippidae and Herakles in th....

Attic Red-figure hydria by the Meidias Painter: Rape of the Leucippidae and Herakles in the Garden of the Hesperides, h. 525 mm, c. 420–400 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Terracotta column-krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)

Group of Boston 00.348 (attrib.): Column krater depicting an artist painting a statue, terracotta, h. 20 1/4 in. (51.5 cm), Apulian Red-figre, ca. 360–350 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1950, Accession ID:50.11.4); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130015147

Apulian Red-figure loutrophoros attributed to the Metope Painter

Apulian Red-figure loutrophoros attributed to the Metope Painter, 3rd quarter of the 4th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, The Bernard and Audrey Aronson Charitable Trust Gift, in memory of her beloved husband, Bernard Aronson, 1995, Accession ID: 1995.45.1); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Funerary vase, wedding scene

Hellenistic bell krater with moulded decoration depicting a wedding scene, terracotta, h. 15 1/2 in. (39.4 cm), from Centuripe, Sicily, 3rd–2nd century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1953, Accession ID: 53.11.5); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Olynthos, house of the pastas type, late 5th century BC to mid-4th; reconstruction of cour....

Olynthos, house of the pastas type, late 5th century bc to mid-4th; reconstruction of courtyard looking north

Silver double-headed kantharos depicting Judgement of Paris, h. 228 mm, c. 350–300 BC (Lon....

Silver double-headed kantharos depicting Judgement of Paris, h. 228 mm, c. 350–300 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Bronze man and centaur

Man Fighting a Centaur (or Man and Centaur), bronze, h. 4 3/8 in. (11.10 cm), Geometric period, mid-8th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917, Accession ID:17.190.2072); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130009708

Bronze Herakles

Statuette of Herakles, bronze, H. 5 1/16 in. (12.80 cm), Archaic period, last quarter of the 6th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, 1928, Accession ID:28.77); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130013466

Bronze diskos thrower

Statuette of a discus thrower, bronze, h. 9 5/8 in. (24.51 cm), ca. 480–460 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1907, Accession ID:07.286.87); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130008441

Bronze statuette of a veiled and masked dancer

Statuette of a veiled and masked dancer, bronze, H. 8 1/16 in. (20.5 cm), Hellenistic period, 3rd–2nd century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Walter C. Baker, 1971, Accession ID:1972.118.95); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130015913

Bronze hydria (water jar)

Hydria with protome of a woman, bronze, h. with handle 20 1/4 in. (51.41 cm), mid-5th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest, 1926, Accession ID:26.50); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130012941

Bronze mirror with a support in the form of a draped woman

Mirror with a support in the form of a draped woman, bronze, h. 15 15/16 in. (40.41 cm), mid-5th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Walter C. Baker, 1971, Accession ID:1972.118.78); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130015896

Terracotta statuette of a standing woman

Statuette of standing draped woman, terracotta, h. 6 7/16 in. (16.4 cm), from Boiotia?, late 4th–early 3rd century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1909, Accession ID:09.221.28); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130008640

Statuette of a woman looking into a box mirror

Statuette of a woman looking into a box mirror, terracotta, h. 286 mm, West Greek, possibly Centuripe, 3rd–2nd century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1912, Accession ID: 12.229.19); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Terracotta plaque

Plaque with the return of Odysseus, terracotta, overall: 7 3/8 x 10 15/16in. (18.7 x 27.8cm), ca. 460–450 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fletcher Fund, 1930, Accession ID:30.11.9); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130013545

Theatrical masks

Theatrical masks, terracotta roundels, 3 x 5 3/4 in. (7.6 x 14.6cm), d. 5 11/16 in. (14.5cm), 1st century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, David L. Klein Jr. Memorial Foundation Inc. Gift, 1999, Accession ID: 1999.316a, b); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Helmet of the ‘Corinthian’ type

Helmet of the ‘Corinthian’ type, bronze, 226×185 mm, c. 600–c. 575 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dodge Fund, 1955, Accession ID: 55.11.10); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze helmet

Helmet with winged youths, bronze, h. 8 1/4 in. (20.96 cm), from Crete, Archaic period, late 7th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989, Accession ID:1989.281.50); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze helmet

Helmet with horses, bronze, H. 9 5/8 in. (24.5 cm), Archaic period, late 7th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of Norbert Schimmel Trust, 1989, Accession ID:1989.281.49); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hellenistic silver four-drachma piece of Lysimachos of Thrace, showing Alexander the Great....

Hellenistic silver four-drachma piece of Lysimachos of Thrace, showing Alexander the Great, diam. 29 mm, from the mint of Pergamon, c.287–c. 282 bc (Berlin, Staatliche Museen Preussicher Kulturbesitz); Photo credit: Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY

Faience aryballos (perfume vase) in the form of two Nubian heads

Faience aryballos (perfume vase) in the form of two Nubian heads, faience, h. 2 1/8 in. (5.4 cm), 4th quarter of the 6th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of Walter C. Baker, 1971, Accession ID: 1972.118.142); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Greek chair

Greek chair, shown on a relief of a seated woman, on a grave stele from Peiraeus, marble, c. 450 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Cast mosaic glass bowl, h. 65 mm, diam. 114 mm, from Crete, c. 200–100 BC (London, Britis....

Cast mosaic glass bowl, h. 65 mm, diam. 114 mm, from Crete, c. 200–100 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Ivory decorative plaque

Plaque with two women, ivory, Overall: 5 3/8 x 2 3/4 x 5/8 in. (13.6 x 7 x 1.6 cm), Archaic period, second half of 7th century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of J. Pierpont Morgan, 1917, Accession ID:17.190.73); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130009666

Ancient Greek ivory-carvings: (a) kneeling or leaping youth, probably the arm of a lyre, h....

Ancient Greek ivory-carvings: (a) kneeling or leaping youth, probably the arm of a lyre, h. 145 mm, from the Sanctuary of Hera, Samos, c. 625 bc (Vathy, Archaeological Museum); (b) female figure, possibly the arm of a lyre, h. 225 mm, c. 600 bc (Berlin, Antikenmuseum); (c) head, possibly a portrait of Philip II, originally forming part of a couch (kline), from the Great Tumulus, Vergina, late 4th century bc–early 3rd (Thessaloniki, Archaeological Museum)

Gold earrings, diam. 81 mm, from Athens, 8th century BC (London, British Museum); photo © ....

Gold earrings, diam. 81 mm, from Athens, 8th century bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Ganymede Jewelry

Ganymede jewellery, gold, rock crystal, emerald, length of necklace 13 in. (33 cm); h. of earrings 2 3/8 in. (6 cm); width of bracelets 3 1/8 in. (8 cm); width of fibulae 1 15/16 in. (5 cm); h. of ring 13/16 in. (2.1 cm), from Macedonia, Hellenistic period, ca. 330–300 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937, Accession ID:37.11.8–.17); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Gold diadem inlaid with garnet and enamel, l. 279 mm, from Melos, c. 300–280 BC (London, B....

Gold diadem inlaid with garnet and enamel, l. 279 mm, from Melos, c. 300–280 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Gold armbands with terminals in the form of a triton and tritoness holding Erotes

Gold armbands with terminals in the form of a triton and tritoness holding Erotes, h. 150 mm and 159 mm, probably from northern Greece, c. 200 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1956, Accession ID: 56.11.5, .6); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bronze jewellery: (a) multi-globe pin, l. 84 mm, from the Heraion, Argos, c. 900–c. 700 BC....

Bronze jewellery: (a) multi-globe pin, l. 84 mm, from the Heraion, Argos, c. 900–c. 700 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); (b) Trebenishte type double-shank pin, l. 78 mm, from Olympia, 6th–5th century bc (Olympia, Archaeological Museum); (c) arched fibula, l. 57 mm, h. 43 mm, from Skoubris tomb 20, Lefkandi, c. 1050–c. 1000 bc (Eretria, Archaeological Museum); (d) Island-type fibula, l. 51 mm, from Ialysos, c. 750–c. 650 bc (Rhodes, Archaeological Museum); (e) Epirotic fibula, l. 95 mm, from Pherai, c. 700–c. 650 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); (f) Attic–Boiotian fibula, l. 146 mm, h. 82 mm, from Skoubris tomb 59, Lefkandi, c. 850–c. 750 bc (Eretria, Archaeological Museum); (g) bracelet, diam. c. 52 mm, from Thebes, c. 700–c. 650 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); (h) ball pendant, h. 67 mm, from Olynthos, c. 600 bc (Thessaloniki, Archaeological Museum); (i) bead, h. 46 mm, from Pherai, c. 750–c. 600 bc (Volos, Athanassakeion Archaeological Museum)

Perseus and Andromeda in Landscape

Perseus and Andromeda in Landscape, wall painting from a bedroom, fresco, 1.6×1.2 m, last decade of the 1st century BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1920, Accession ID: 20.192.16); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Athens, Temple of Olympian Zeus, begun late 6th century BC, completed first half of 2nd ce....

Athens, Temple of Olympian Zeus, begun late 6th century bc, completed first half of 2nd century ad; photo credit: SEF/Art Resource, NY

Greek temple components: (a) anta; (b) cella; (c) pronaos; (d) peristyle; (e) stylobate; (....

Greek temple components: (a) anta; (b) cella; (c) pronaos; (d) peristyle; (e) stylobate; (f) opisthodomos; (g) adyton; (h) intercolumniation

Selinus, plans of Doric temples, c. 550–c. 450 BC ....

Selinus, plans of Doric temples, c. 550–c. 450 bc

Athens, Parthenon; Photo credit: Art Resource, NY....

Athens, Parthenon; Photo credit: Art Resource, NY

Athens, plans of temples on Acropolis: (a) ‘Older Parthenon‘, 488–480 BC; (b) Parthenon, 4....

Athens, plans of temples on Acropolis: (a) ‘Older Parthenon‘, 488–480 bc; (b) Parthenon, 447–432 bc

Ephesos, plan of the Late Classical Temple of Artemis, c. 350–300 BC ....

Ephesos, plan of the Late Classical Temple of Artemis, c. 350–300 bc

Athens, aerial reconstruction of Agora, c. AD 150: (a) Panathenaic Way; (b) Stoa of Zeus E....

Athens, aerial reconstruction of Agora, c. ad 150: (a) Panathenaic Way; (b) Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios; (c) Temple of Hephaistos (Hephaisteion); (d) tholos; (e) New Bouleuterion; (f) Metroon; (g) Royal Stoa; (h) Stoa Poikile; (i) South Stoa I; (j) fountain-house, 6th century bc; (k) fountain-house, 4th century bc; (l) Middle Stoa; (m) Stoa of Attalos; (n) Odeion of Agrippa; (o) Temple of Ares; (p) Library of Flavius Pantainos; (q) Basilica of Hadrian; (r) nymphaeum

Athens, Tower of the Winds (detail), 2nd century BC; Photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY....

Athens, Tower of the Winds (detail), 2nd century bc; photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Architectural orders: (a) Greek Doric; (b) Roman Doric; (c) Ionic; (d) Corinthian; (e) Com....

Architectural orders: (a) Greek Doric; (b) Roman Doric; (c) Ionic; (d) Corinthian; (e) Composite; (f) Tuscan; parts of the orders: (i) column; (ii) entablature; (iii) base; (iv) shaft; (v) capital; (vi) architrave; (vii) frieze; (viii) cornice; (ix) fluting; (x) neck; (xi) echinus; (xii) abacus; (xiii) guttae; (xiv) taenia; (xv) triglyph; (xvi) metope; (xvii) mutules; (xviii) cyma recta; (xix) plinth; (xx) scotia; (xxi) torus; (xxii) egg and dart; (xxiii) volutes; (xxiv) fascia; (xxv) dentils; (xxvi) astragal; (xxvii) acanthus; (xxviii) caliculi; (xxix) modillion; (xxx) cyma reversa; (xxxi) brackets

Delphi, Sanctuary of Apollo, 6th–3rd century BC, plan: (a) Naxian column; (b) Temple of Ap....

Delphi, Sanctuary of Apollo, 6th–3rd century bc, plan: (a) Naxian column; (b) Temple of Apollo; (c) Knidian Treasury; (d) Siphnian Treasury; (e) Athenian Treasury; (f) Stoa of the Athenians; (g) site of tripod of the Crotonians, supposed site of tripod of Plataia; (h) Lesche of the Knidians; (i) Treasury of the Syracusans; (j) Treasury of the Thebans; (k) Treasury of Cyrene; (l) West Stoa; (m) Stoa of Attalos

Didyma, view of the Temple of Apollo (Temple III)

Didyma, view of the Temple of Apollo (Temple III) from the west, late 4th century bc; photo credit: Vanni/Art Resource, NY

Pergamon, Ludovisi Gaul group, original bronze, c. 230–c. 220 BC; marble copy, h. 2.11 m w....

Pergamon, Ludovisi Gaul group, original bronze, c. 230–c. 220 bc; marble copy, h. 2.11 m without base (Rome, Museo Nazionale Romano); photo credit: Scala/Art Resource, NY

Pergamon, Great Altar, detail of the Great Frieze (east) showing the Gigantomachy, h. 2.3 ....

Pergamon, Great Altar, detail of the Great Frieze (east) showing the Gigantomachy, h. 2.3 m, c. 180–c. 160 bc (Berlin, Pergamonmuseum); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Calf-bearer, marble, restored, h. 1.65 m, Middle Archaic period, c. 560 BC (Athens, Acropo....

Calf-bearer, marble, restored, h. 1.65 m, Middle Archaic period, c. 560 bc (Athens, Acropolis Museum); photo credit: Nimatallah/Art Resource, NY

Marble stele (grave marker) of a youth and a little girl

Grave stele (grave-marker) showing the deceased, Me[gakles], with his sister, marble, total h. 166 11/16 in. (423.4cm), Archaic period, ca. 530 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Frederick C. Hewitt Fund, 1911; Rogers Fund, 1921; Anonymous Gift, 1951, Accession ID:11.185a–c, f, g); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Marble grave stele with a family group

Grave stele with a family group, Pentelic marble, h. 67 3/8 in. (171.1 cm), ca. 360 BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1911, Accession ID:11.100.2); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/130008959

Central scene from the inner frieze (Panathenaic) from the east façade of the Parthenon, m....

Central scene from the inner frieze (Panathenaic) from the east façade of the Parthenon, marble, h. 1 m, c. 438–432 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Dermys and Kittylos

Dermys and Kittylos, limestone, h. 2.0 m, from Tanagra, Middle Archaic period, c. 580 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Chatsworth Apollo, bronze, h. 316 mm, from Tamassos, c. 460 BC (London, British Museum); p....

Chatsworth Apollo, bronze, h. 316 mm, from Tamassos, c. 460 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Horseman

Horseman, stone, h. 1.2 m, from a grave stele, found at Thespiai, Boiotia, High Classical period, c. 430 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Ephesos, section of sculpted marble column from the Late Classical Temple of Artemis, h. 1....

Ephesos, section of sculpted marble column from the Late Classical Temple of Artemis, h. 1.84 m, c. 340–320 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Aphrodite Defending Herself with her Sandal against the Amorous Advances of Pan

Aphrodite Defending Herself with her Sandal against the Amorous Advances of Pan, marble, h. 1.32 m, Hellenistic period, c. 100 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Dipylon Head

Dipylon Head, marble, h. 420 mm, from a kouros found in the Kerameikos cemetery, Athens, c. 610 bc (Athens, National Archaeological Museum); photo © Allan T. Kohl/AICT

Delphi, Charioteer, bronze, h. 1.8 m, c. 478–474 BC (Delphi, Archaeological Museum); photo....

Delphi, Charioteer, bronze, h. 1.8 m, c. 478–474 bc (Delphi, Archaeological Museum); photo credit: Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

Niobid Painter (attrib.): Kalyx krater depicting (top) Gods Creating Pandora and (bottom) ....

Niobid Painter (attrib.): Kalyx krater depicting (top) Gods Creating Pandora and (bottom) a Pan/Satyr Chorus, Red-figure, h. 495 mm, c. 460–450 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Douris: Psykter depicting Satyrs at Play, h. 287 mm, Attic Red-figure, c. 500–490 BC (Lond....

Douris: Psykter depicting Satyrs at Play, h. 287 mm, Attic Red-figure, c.500–490 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Nearchos: Aryballos depicting comic imagery

Nearchos (attrib.): Aryballos depicting comic imagery, h. 78 mm, c. 570 bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, The Cesnola Collection, by exchange, 1926, Accession ID: 26.49); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art, photographed by Schecter Lee

Bronze figurine of a Running Girl, h. 114 mm, possibly made in Sparta, c. 520–500 BC (Lond....

Bronze figurine of a Running Girl, h. 114 mm, possibly made in Sparta, c. 520–500 bc (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Bronze oinochoe

Bronze oinochoe with handle in a form of a female bust, h. 344 mm, mid-6th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Classical Purchase Fund and Shelby White and Leon Levy Gift, 1997, Accession ID: 1997.158); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Hydria with Eros on handle

Hydria with Eros on handle, bronze, h. 19 3/4 in. (50.2 cm), 4th century bc (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1944, Accession ID: 44.11.9); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

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[flourished]
Enciclopedia universale dell’arte, 15 vols (Rome, 1958–67); Eng. trans. as Encyclopedia of World Art (New York, 1959–68)