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Goltzius [Gols; Goltius; Goltz; Golzius], Hendrick [Hendrik]locked

(b Mülbracht [now Bracht-am-Niederrhein], Jan or Feb 1558; d Haarlem, Jan 1, 1617).
  • E. K. J. Reznicek

Dutch draughtsman, printmaker, print publisher and painter. He was an important artist of the transitional period between the late 16th century and the early 17th, when the conception of art in the northern Netherlands was gradually changing. Goltzius was initially an exponent of Mannerism, with its strong idealization of subject and form. Together with the other two well-known Dutch Mannerists, Karel van Mander I and Cornelis Cornelisz. van Haarlem, he introduced the complex compositional schemes and exaggeratedly contorted figures of Bartholomäus Spranger to the northern Netherlands. These three artists are also supposed to have established an academy in Haarlem in the mid-1580s, but virtually nothing is known about this project. In 1590 Goltzius travelled to Italy, thereafter abandoning Spranger as a model and developing a late Renaissance style based on a broadly academic and classicizing approach. Later still, his art reflected the growing interest in naturalism that emerged in the northern Netherlands from c. 1600. In fact, Goltzius’s ability to emulate the style and technique of different artists and to adapt to current trends earned him distinction as a ‘Proteus of changing shapes’.

The intellectual milieu in which Goltzius worked was formed by the humanist printmaker Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert, with whom he studied, and the learned Latin schoolmasters Franco Estius (b c. 1545) and Cornelis Schonaeus (1540–1611), who provided inscriptions for his engravings. Besides the art theories of van Mander (e.g. the latter’s firm conviction of the affinity of painting and poetry; see Ut pictura poesis), Goltzius was influenced by the Idea de’ pittori, scultori ed architetti (1607) of Federico Zuccaro, whom he had met in Rome. In his lifetime Goltzius’s fame, in the Netherlands and elsewhere, was based largely on the technical skill and virtuosity of his engravings, which influenced many artists, including the young Rubens. By 1596–7 examples of his prints had found their way to places as remote as the Arctic island of Novaya Zemlya, and in 1612 the English writer Henry Peachum recommended in The Gentleman’s Exercise: ‘For a bold touch, variety of posture, curious and true shadow, imitate Goltzius, his prints are commonly to be had in Pope-head-alley’.

1. Life.

Goltzius’s great-grandfather, Hubrecht Goltz von Hinsbeck (fl 1494), was a painter at Venlo, as was his grandfather, Jan Goltz I (fl 1532–50). When Hendrick was three years old, his father, Jan Goltz II (1534–after 1609), moved from Mülbracht to Duisburg, where he worked as a glass painter. According to van Mander, as a child Hendrick apparently burnt his hand and thereafter was unable to extend his fingers fully. About 1574 Goltzius became a pupil of Coornhert’s in Xanten. In 1577, after Haarlem had declared for William the Silent, Prince of Orange, Goltzius followed Coornhert to that city, where he worked until his death. In 1577–8 he executed large commissions as an engraver for the Antwerp publisher Philip Galle. In 1579 Goltzius married Margaretha Jansdr (d after 1628), a shipbuilder’s daughter and a widow, who brought with her an eight-year-old son by her previous marriage, Jacob Matham; the Goltzius marriage was childless. In 1582 Goltzius opened his own graphic printing house. He became a patron and a close friend of van Mander after the latter settled at Haarlem in 1583, and in those years he negotiated with the Jesuits of Rome over an engraving commission. Jacob Matham, Jacques de Gheyn II and Jan Muller were among his pupils in the late 1580s.

Van Mander, Goltzius’s chief biographer, recorded that he fell ill (probably of consumption) and that, apparently for health reasons, he went to Italy at the end of October 1590; the progress of this illness can be seen in his self-portraits. In Italy Goltzius visited Rome and Naples and, on both the outward and return journeys, Venice and Florence. There he drew a number of artists’ portraits and also recorded the wonders of Rome, from famous antique statues to the façade paintings of Polidoro da Caravaggio, as well as works by other important Italian artists. By the end of 1591 Goltzius was back in Haarlem. During this period Jan Saenredam, among others, worked as an engraver in his studio. Although his health again worsened, Goltzius continued to work vigorously; his prints were on sale everywhere, including foreign countries. Then, in or about 1600, he turned to painting and more or less gave up engraving. In 1605 he was duped by an alchemist whom he had taken into his house on the strength of his claims to be able to make gold. In June 1612 Goltzius and his fellow guild artists entertained Rubens when the latter visited Haarlem. In 1614 a scandal was caused by Goltzius’s alleged ‘carnal’ relationship with a maid. In October 1616 Sir Dudley Carleton wrote of his visit to Haarlem: ‘Goltzius is yet living, but not like to last owt an other winter; and his art decays with his body’. The day after Goltzius’s death, the Haarlem funeral bell tolled half an hour for him, at a cost of 7 guilders.

2. Work.

(i) Drawings.

(a) Technique and media.

Goltzius was a versatile and masterly draughtsman, skilled in the use of several different instruments and media: metalpoint, quill pen and ink, brush and wash, and red and black chalk. He does not seem to have had any preference but became famous chiefly as a ‘master of the pen’.

Goltzius’s metalpoint technique was inherited from the traditional practice of Dürer, in which pieces of paper or parchment were first primed with a pulp of bone-ash and glue and then prepared with a light brown or yellow ground, on which the artist could work in metalpoint with great accuracy. It is often hard to know which metal is used since the lines oxidize over time, but in Goltzius’s case it was mainly silverpoint. However, he used leadpoint, which is softer, leaves traces more easily and can be recognized by its shiny effect, in the portrait of Jean Niquet (c. 1595; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). By incising the upper layer of coloured preparation, the white ground was sometimes used to create highlights, as in Goltzius’s portraits of his parents-in-law, Jan Baertsen and Elizabeth Waterland (both 1580; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen). Sometimes the hard primed sheets were bound together to form a drawing-book. No actual books are known to have survived, but there are individual leaves, such as the portrait of his father, Jan Goltz II (1579; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst.), which are drawn on both sides. Goltzius’s early realistic portrait drawings in metalpoint are the continuation of an older Netherlandish tradition: they are executed with great precision, sober and unadorned. After 1590 their handling is looser and less detailed, as was made possible especially with the softer leadpoint. After 1600 Goltzius seems, with a few exceptions, to have practically abandoned metalpoint: an example of his later style, freer and more sketchlike, is the Portrait of a Man with a Long Grey Beard (c. 1610; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.). Goltzius used metalpoint not only for small finished portraits intended as independent works of art but also for head studies, such as that of the Polish envoy Stanislas Sobocki (1583; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). This carefully executed study was then placed on a full-length body, intentionally schematic and not based on visual observation, for Goltzius’s portrait engraving of the envoy (Strauss, no. 174). That metalpoint drawings also served as records of observed reality is evident from the spontaneous drawings of the artist’s dog, a Drent spaniel, in various attitudes (e.g. c. 1596; Paris, Fond. Custodia, Inst. Néer.) and by sketches of more exotic animals, such as the Study of a Camel (c. 1589; London, BM).

Goltzius was also skilled at drawing in chalk. Even before his visit to Italy in 1590, he executed several sheets in this medium, then very little used in the northern Netherlands. His complete command of this technique is apparent in the Four Studies of a Hand, perhaps showing his own crippled right hand (c. 1588; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Kstinst. & Städt. Gal.), a drawing in red and black chalk. Even more elaborate in technique is the drawing of a Lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) (1589; Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert 1er), with green chalk as well as red and black, and watercolour wash and stumping. In early chalk portraits, such as that of Gillis van Breen (1588; Frankfurt am Main, Städel. Ksthist. & Städt. Gal.), the technique is closer to the French à trois crayons method than to any Italian model. Goltzius’s chalk technique was enriched by his visit to Italy and his exposure to chalk drawings by Federico Zuccaro and Federico Barocci. Goltzius’s portrait of Giambologna (1591; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.) is a true masterpiece, the equal of any chalk study by Zuccaro; it is remarkable for its expressive painterly quality, achieved by the use of black and red chalk and a light application of chestnut-brown wash to the eyes and beard. Some drawings, such as the two of the Holy Family (late 1590s, Otterlo, Rijksmus. Kröller-Müller; and c. 1600, Weimar, Schlossmus.), were clearly made in imitation of Barocci. After 1600 Goltzius’s chalk technique became softer and more refined. Red and black chalk are used for lightly hatched strokes, but much of this is then dissolved through extensive stumping, as in a series of realistic, yet idealized portraits of women (e.g. c. 1605–10; Oxford, Ashmolean), which reveal a tenderness and feeling for female charms not previously found in Goltzius’s work.

Although the technique of many of Goltzius’s pen-and-ink drawings is closely related to the practice of engraving with the burin, he also made rapid, summary pen sketches, such as that of the pose of William of Orange (1581; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.), a study for the portrait engraving (b. 178). This figure sketch was, in fact, of incidental importance: Goltzius was mainly concerned with the allegorical figures in the border and with the cartouche for the inscription, which are carefully elaborated with pen and brush. Both during and after his lifetime, Goltzius was famous for his Federkunststücke (or ‘pen works’), a term introduced by Joseph Meder in Die Handzeichnung (Vienna, 1923). These are large and impressive imitations of engravings, drawn in pen and ink. One such example is a portrait, drawn two years after the chalk study, of Gillis van Breen (1590; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.); another was recorded in Rudolf II’s collection in Prague—a Head of Mercury, probably the drawing now in Oxford (Ashmolean). In 1604 Goltzius produced a unique, astonishing specimen of this technique: on a prepared canvas measuring 2.28×1.78 m he drew Venus, Bacchus and Ceres with Cupid (‘Sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus’; St Petersburg, Hermitage), which once had pride of place in the collection of Pierre Crozat. Drawings in brush and wash alone are rare in Goltzius’s work, but he used the brush and white highlights for his working drawings for engravings, such as those (e.g. three sheets of c. 1590; all Hamburg, Ksthalle) for an anonymous series of prints of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Among the known artists who made engravings after his drawings are his pupils de Gheyn, Matham and Saenredam.

(b) Style.

Goltzius’s draughtsmanship before 1590 is relatively straightforward: first he drew in the manner of Maarten van Heemskerck, later in that of Anthonie Blocklandt and, from 1585 onwards, that of Spranger. He had no clear style of his own but followed current fashion for commercial reasons. The only group that could be described as original is the fine series of small metalpoint portraits (see §2, (i), (a) above). His journey to Italy in 1590–91 led to a new, broader approach. Besides the work of Zuccaro and Barocci, his models were the prints of Titian and Domenico Campagnola, as well as Dürer, Lucas van Leyden and those after Pieter Bruegel I. What is remarkable is that he was now able to imitate several styles simultaneously. From c. 1600 his draughtsmanship became so heterogeneous that it defies classification. Some studies of female nudes (e.g. 1594; USA, priv. col., see Reznicek, 1993, fig.) and two landscapes of views around Haarlem (both 1603; Paris, Fond. Custodia, Inst. Néer.; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen) seem to have been drawn from life, anticipating later examples of naturalistic Dutch art. In exploring different artistic sources, Goltzius seems to have ignored the work of Rubens as a draughtsman, although his magnificent red and black chalk drawing of a Man with a Long Grey Beard and Bowed Head (1610; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.) has an expressive force not inferior to anything Rubens could achieve.

(ii) Prints.

(a) Engravings and etchings.

In his pioneering study of 1921 Hirschmann catalogued 361 prints by Goltzius, mostly engravings and only a few etchings. Those designed by Goltzius himself numbered 291, while the remainder were made by him after the work of other artists. Before his journey to Italy, he engraved designs by Blocklandt, Joannes Stradanus, Dirck Barendsz., Marten de Vos, Spranger and Cornelisz. van Haarlem; after his return, he made reproductive prints of ancient sculpture and Italian paintings, such as those by Raphael, Palma Giovane and Annibale Carracci. Goltzius used drawings or copies of drawings by all these artists, which stimulated the development of his engraving style.

In his early years as an apprentice in Xanten with Coornhert, who was a mediocre engraver working mostly after drawings by van Heemskerck, Goltzius does not seem to have designed engravings of his own. Afterwards he worked for Philip Galle and probably executed, anonymously, less important parts of copperplates.

Goltzius’s earliest signed engravings (e.g. the Annunciation, 1578; s 23), dating from after he had settled in Haarlem, are in the Flemish style that then prevailed in Galle’s circle. The large engraving of the Venetian Ball (1584; s 182), printed from two plates after Dirck Barendsz., marks the beginning of a new technique with a more balanced distribution of light and dark and a more dynamic use of the burin. This development can also be seen in the early portrait engravings. Goltzius’s resourcefulness as a businessman is apparent from the series of prints illustrating the Funeral of William of Orange (s 192–203), who died on 3 August 1584; before the end of the year Goltzius, who calculated that an etching needle was faster than the burin, etched the funeral procession on 12 sheets, measuring nearly 5 m in length.

From 1585 Goltzius engraved for Spranger. To convey the dynamism of the latter’s nudes, he developed a new burin technique in which the grooves cut in the copper gradually swelled or became thinner according to the pressure of the burin. The varying thickness of the parallel hatchings and crosshatchings determined the distribution of light and dark, the ‘colour’ or tone and the volumetric effect of the print. Sometimes the areas of shade were strengthened by stippled dots between the crosshatchings. This technique reached its height in 1587–8, in engravings such as the very large Wedding of Cupid and Psyche after Spranger (1587; s 255), a kind of pattern-card of the influential Mannerist style, and the five prints after Cornelisz. van Haarlem, a series of the Four Disgracers of Heaven (s 257–60) and Two Followers of Cadmus Devoured by a Dragon (s 310<1--; for the original painting -->). A year later the Great Hercules (1589; s 283) appeared, with its strange-looking bruiser with swollen muscles, who came to be known in Holland as the Knolleman (‘Bulb Man’).

After Goltzius returned from Italy, he never again engraved after Spranger, Cornelisz. van Haarlem or any other compatriot. After a period of dynamism, technically and stylistically, he now sought a greater sense of harmony and restfulness. He toned down the unnatural proportions of his earlier figures, and the engravings of what have become known as the master years (1590–98) generally appear smoother. The back of the Farnese Hercules (c. 1592; s 312), with its strong contrasts of light and dark, however, still recalls the ‘bulbous’ style of c. 1588. The engraving was made after two drawings Goltzius made and brought back from Rome (both 1591; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.). The Triumph of Galatea (1592; s 288) after Raphael is, in its perfect sensibility, one of the finest engravings after fresco. The Meisterstiche or Master Engravings is the name given to six large engraved scenes from the Life of the Virgin (1593–4; s 317–22). From the outset, they were regarded as models of several different styles: those of Raphael, Parmigianino, Jacopo Bassano, Barocci, Lucas van Leyden and Dürer. They are not direct imitations of these masters but deliberate compositions in their character and style. The Circumcision (s 322) comes so close to Dürer that, according to van Mander, it was mistaken for his work. Other engravings followed in the style of Dürer and Lucas van Leyden. Goltzius’s ability to enter into the style of other masters is also seen in the St Jerome (1596; s 335) after Palma Giovane, a masterpiece dedicated to his friend the sculptor Alessandro Vittoria. The latter made a portrait bust of Palma Giovane (Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), of which Goltzius made a drawing (Berlin, Kupferstichkab.)—thus shedding light on Goltzius’s circle of friends in Venice.

After 1590 Goltzius made relatively few portrait engravings, although the portrait of Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert (c. 1591–2; s 287), printed from an unusually large copperplate and commemorating the humanist’s death in 1590, shows Goltzius at the height of his powers. He also engraved a number of small portrait medallions on silver, none of which is now traceable, although there are prints from them, which bear the inscription in reverse. The original silver plate of Venus, Ceres and Bacchus (1595; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.), which was also intended as an independent work of art, was formerly in the collection of Rudolf II (for prints taken from it, see s 325 and fig.). After 1600 Goltzius made few engravings. Most late examples are questionable and were in some cases probably engraved by his stepson, Jacob Matham.

(b) Chiaroscuro woodcuts.

There are also 25 chiaroscuro woodcuts in Goltzius’s oeuvre (s 401–25), some in several states. He introduced this technique in the northern Netherlands (see Woodcut, chiaroscuro, §2), following the example of Hans Baldung and such Italians as Ugo da Carpi and Andrea Andreani. The earliest and only dated woodcut is the Hercules and Cacus (1588; s 403). The Magicians (or ‘Cave of Eternity’) is not only the most imaginative but also the most brilliant in technique and colour. There is only one state, known in c. twenty impressions, printed from a line block in black and two colour blocks, the darker of which is olive green or sepia, the other different shades of green and beige.

Sometimes Goltzius obtained special effects by printing the line block by itself on to blue paper, as in the impressions of the single-state Arcadian Landscapes (s 407), unnatural especially in their colouring. The same technique stressed the fantasy quality of his seascapes (s 413–14; for illustration of his woodcut Seascape with Sailing Vessels after Cornelis Claesz. van Wieringen see Wieringen, Cornelis Claesz. van). They were important models for the landscape drawings of the young Esaias van de Velde and the brothers Jan and Jacob Pynas and, above all, for the experimental prints of Hercules Segers, but the technique had no subsequent exponents among Dutch artists.

(iii) Paintings.

In 1916 Hirschmann catalogued 18 paintings attributed to Goltzius; the number has since risen to 39. In 1600 Goltzius, already famous as an engraver, suddenly decided, like Jacques de Gheyn II, to take up oil painting. His reasons are not known but were probably a combination of his deteriorating eyesight, his belief, shared with van Mander, that painting was the noblest of the arts and, finally, the competition from Flemish artists migrating northwards. The earliest known example is the small painting on copper of the Dead Christ on a Stone Slab (1602; Providence, RI Sch. Des., Mus. A.); this was followed the next year by the impressive portrait of the flabby-looking shell-collector Jan Govertsen (1603; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen), Goltzius’s only known painted portrait.

Most of Goltzius’s paintings are large; the quiet, somewhat wooden composition is usually dominated by one or two monumental religious or mythological figures, as in the Ecce homo (1607; Utrecht, Cent. Mus.) or Venus and Adonis (1614; Munich, Alte Pin.). The conception of the painted nude is quite different from that in drawings and engravings of the Spranger period: the new, academic style is rooted, first of all, in Goltzius’s knowledge and admiration of the Classical statuary he drew in Rome and, second, in the life drawings he made from 1594 onwards. The poses and movements are rather stiff; the colouring, a fiery reddish-brown, is pseudo-Venetian. He does not seem to have painted landscapes or still-lifes. Few, if any, drawings can be connected with paintings.

Goltzius’s painting was much admired by his contemporaries, such as van Mander, but later sharply criticized: Constantijn Huygens the elder, for instance, thought it a failure. The poet Joost van den Vondel said nothing about him as a painter. Goltzius’s pictorial work was long overshadowed by his world-famous engravings and the subsequent popularity of his drawings. In 1935 Willem Martin, in his pioneering account of 17th-century Dutch painting, devoted only one line to Goltzius. In 1981 three of Goltzius’s paintings were shown in the Gods, Saints and Heroes exhibition (see 1980–81 exh. cat.). It was only then that he was rightly recognized as the earliest representative of the Dutch classicizing school and his reputation began to be restored. His chief pupil, as a painter, was Pieter de Grebber.

3. Cultural context and subject-matter.

It is not certain whether Goltzius belonged to the Catholic Church. However, his wife and stepson were loyal Catholics, and his personal and commercial relations with the Church were good. Two of his most important series of prints, the Life of the Virgin and the Passion (1596–9; Hirschmann, nos 21–32), were dedicated to prominent Catholics, the first to William V of Bavaria and the second to Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Works by Goltzius were also owned by the Catholic rulers Philip II and Rudolf II, the latter having bought drawings and also an engraved copperplate direct from the artist. From the days when Goltzius was a pupil of Coornhert’s he was also influenced by the latter’s liberal philosophy, according to which anyone who holds Christ in his heart does not need a church. Goltzius’s non-political stance and pragmatic commercial outlook as a print publisher is seen from his engraved portrait of Philip II’s opponent, the Protestant sovereign William of Orange and that of his third wife Charlotte of Bourbon (1581; s 143) and from the 12-plate etching of William’s funeral procession. The degree of Goltzius’s interest in religious subjects reflects the changing political situation in the nascent Dutch Republic, particularly in Haarlem. Around 1578 or somewhat earlier he engraved large series of elaborate Christian allegories, which could be regarded as supporting the Counter-Reformation cause. In the 1580s, after Haarlem had declared itself on the side of the Calvinists, there were fewer commissions from Catholics for works such as altarpieces; only after 1590 did Goltzius’s interest in religious themes revive.

Mythological subjects are richly represented in Goltzius’s work, for which van Mander must have played a considerable part as adviser. Goltzius made many drawings of scenes from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, which were engraved as Christian moral exempla. Van Mander, for instance, explained the scene of the Two Followers of Cadmus Devoured by a Dragon, depicted in Goltzius’s engraving after Cornelisz. van Haarlem, as symbolizing the contrast between Cadmus, the model of the God-fearing man, who is seen killing the dragon in the background, and his two unfortunate companions, who represent the idle pursuits of youth. Goltzius’s work is permeated with such allegorical and symbolic meanings, giving visual form to abstract ideas and edifying thoughts (for an illustration of his engraving from 1594 of Quis evadet? or an Allegory of Transience,). Another representative example is the remarkable triptych painted on canvas (Haarlem, Frans Halsmus.), with nearly life-size figures of a Haarlem citizen attired as the half-naked Hercules Overcoming Cacus (1613) in the centre, flanked by Mercury (1611) and Minerva with their symbolic attributes. Allusions are also present in secular works: a music-making couple accompanied by a heart usually signifies Hearing, a right hand represents Work, bagpipes Gluttony and so forth.

In a different category are those works that record Goltzius’s surroundings—although even some of these are not devoid of allegorical significance. The academic copies of ancient statues that Goltzius made in Rome, the first of their kind in Dutch art, are of considerable interest archaeologically and from the point of view of cultural history. They are carefully executed and give a reliable indication of the condition of the statues in 1591. They also provide documentary evidence for the reconstruction of the papal sculpture garden of the Belvedere. However, sometimes they constitute more than a simple record of what the artist had seen; for instance, the Farnese Hercules was probably represented from the back because Pliny the younger (Natural History, XXXV.xciv) praised a ‘Hercules aversus’ painted by Apelles.

With the exception of the three realistic drawings made in the neighbourhood of Haarlem, most of Goltzius’s landscapes are imaginary, in the style associated with Bruegel and the Venetians. It is difficult to be certain of the symbolic significance of those pure landscapes that contain no accessory elements, but in other cases the landscape forms the setting for a narrative, although, as in the landscapes engraved after Bruegel, the figures are sometimes so small as almost to escape attention. The tiny figure of Mercury with his caduceus is seen hovering, upper left, in the wide, fantastic landscape drawing at Besançon (?1596; Mus. B.-A.). Landscapes could also have a historical or patriotic significance, as in the Ruins of Bredero Castle (1600; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), which formerly belonged to Count Arnolphus of Holland.

The drawing of the Lumpfish would certainly not be out of place as an illustration in a book on zoology, and Goltzius’s scientific interest in botany is apparent in his drawings of plants, such as the metalpoint Study of a Tobacco Plant (c. 1585; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen). Although it records an actual event that took place between Scheveningen and Katwijk on 3 February 1598, the drawing of a Beached Whale (1598; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.), engraved by Matham the same year (b. 61), was interpreted as an omen portending war with Spain. The Study of a Camel symbolized, according to van Mander, a patient, virtuous man and was probably intended to represent the artist struggling with his illness. The delightful coloured drawing of a Little Monkey (c. 1605; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; formerly attributed to Roelandt Savery; see Reznicek, 1993, fig.) stands for wickedness or the chained devil. The informal metalpoint studies of the artist’s dog served as the basis for an elaborate chalk Portrait of Goltzius’s Dog (c. 1597; Haarlem, Teylers Mus.), which was conceived more like a human portrait, and for the engraving of Goltzius’s young pupil Frederik de Vries with a Dog and a Pigeon, generally known as ‘Goltzius’s Dog’ (1597; s 344). According to van Mander, the dove in the engraving stands for childlike innocence, while the dog is the kindly teacher who keeps watch over human souls.

Van Mander took a lowly view of realistic portraits, the making of which, he thought, cramped the imagination. This may explain why, despite numerous sober portraits from life, Goltzius also made engravings in which the central personage is surrounded by allegorical figures and motifs expressing his or her virtues, as is true of the engravings of William of Orange and Dirck Volkertsz. Coornhert.

Bibliography

  • K. van Mander: Schilder-boeck ([1603]–1604)
  • A. von Bartsch: Le Peintre-graveur (1803–21) [b.]
  • O. Hirschmann: Hendrick Goltzius als Maler, 1600–1610 (The Hague, 1916)
  • O. Hirschmann: Hendrick Goltzius, Meister der Graphik (Leipzig, 1919)
  • O. Hirschmann: Verzeichnis des graphischen Werks von Hendrick Goltzius (Leipzig, 1921)
  • E. K. J. Reznicek: ‘Het begin van Goltzius’ loopbaan als schilder’ [The beginning of Goltzius’s career as a painter], Oud-Holland, 75 (1960), pp. 30–49
  • E. K. J. Reznicek: Die Zeichnungen von Hendrick Goltzius, 2 vols (Utrecht, 1961); review by A. E. Popham in Burl. Mag., civ (1962), pp. 395–6
  • W. L. Strauss: Hendrik Goltzius: The Complete Engravings and Woodcuts, 2 vols (New York, 1977) [cat. rais.] [s]
  • Gods, Saints and Heroes (exh. cat., ed. A. Blankert; Washington, DC, N.G.A.; Detroit, MI, Inst. A.; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.; 1980–81), pp. 94–9
  • L. W. Nichols: ‘Job in Distress: A Newly Discovered Painting by Hendrick Goltzius’, Simiolus, 13/13–14 (1983), pp. 182–8
  • L. W. Nichols: The Paintings of Hendrick Goltzius (PhD diss., New York, Columbia U., 1990)
  • L. W. Nichols: ‘The “Pen Works” of Hendrick Goltzius’, Bull. Philadelphia Mus. A. (Winter 1992) [whole issue devoted to exh. held at Philadelphia, 1991–2]
  • ‘Goltzius: Studies’, Nederlands(ch) kunsthistorisch jaarboek, 42–43 (1991–2) (Zwolle, 1993) [18 articles by specialists, and bibliography]
  • E. K. J. Reznicek: ‘Drawings by Hendrick Goltzius, Thirty Years Later: Supplement to the 1961 Catalogue raisonné’, Master Drawings, 31/3 (1993), pp. 215–78
  • Dawn of the Golden Age: Northern Netherlandish Art, 1580–1620 (exh. cat., ed. G. Luijten and others; Amsterdam, Rijksmus., 1993–4), p. 305, passim
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