Ghaffari family [Ghaffārī]
- Sheila S. Blair
Persian family of painters. A distinguished family of government officials and jurists from Kashan, it had many members who were also artists. For several decades beginning in 1749, Mu‛izz al-Din Muhammad Ghaffari served as governor of Kashan, Jawshaqan, Qum and Natanz for the Zand ruler of Shiraz, Karim Khan (reg 1750–79). Mu‛izz al-Din’s son (1) Abu’l-Hasan Mustawfi Ghaffari became court secretary to Karim Khan and was a noted painter of polychrome watercolours and wash drawings. His great-nephew (2) Abu’l-Hasan Ghaffari was the greatest painter of the Qajar dynasty and was awarded the title ‘Painter of the Kingdom’ (Pers. Sānı‛ al-mulk), by which he is often known. He introduced a realistic style based on European painting, and this style was continued by his nephew (3) Muhammad Ghaffari, who was known under the title ‘Perfection of the Kingdom’ (Kamāl al-mulk) and was the most notable painter in Iran in the late 19th century and early 20th....