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date: 20 October 2019

Ghaffari family [Ghaffārī]locked

  • Sheila S. Blair



Persian family of painters. A distinguished family of government officials and jurists from Kashan, it had many members who were also artists. For several decades beginning in 1749, Mu‛izz al-Din Muhammad Ghaffari served as governor of Kashan, Jawshaqan, Qum and Natanz for the Zand ruler of Shiraz, Karim Khan (reg 1750–79). Mu‛izz al-Din’s son (1) Abu’l-Hasan Mustawfi Ghaffari became court secretary to Karim Khan and was a noted painter of polychrome watercolours and wash drawings. His great-nephew (2) Abu’l-Hasan Ghaffari was the greatest painter of the Qajar dynasty and was awarded the title ‘Painter of the Kingdom’ (Pers. Sānı‛ al-mulk), by which he is often known. He introduced a realistic style based on European painting, and this style was continued by his nephew (3) Muhammad Ghaffari, who was known under the title ‘Perfection of the Kingdom’ (Kamāl al-mulk) and was the most notable painter in Iran in the late 19th century and early 20th....

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E. Yar Shater, ed.: Encyclopedia Iranica (London, 1986)