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date: 13 November 2019

Germany, Federal Republic of [Deutschland]locked

  • Erika Speel,
  • David Jenkinson,
  • Günther Binding,
  • Doris Kutschbach,
  • Ulrich Knapp,
  • Howard Caygill,
  • Achim Preiss,
  • Helmut Börsch-Supan,
  • Thomas Kliemann,
  • April Eisman,
  • Klaus Niehr,
  • Jeffrey Chipps Smith,
  • Ulrich Leben,
  • Heidrun Zinnkann,
  • Angelika Steinmetz,
  • Walter Spiegl,
  • G. Reinheckel,
  • Hannelore Müller,
  • Gerhard Bott,
  • Peter Hornsby,
  • Anna Beatriz Chadour,
  • A. Kenneth Snowman,
  • Brigitte Dinger,
  • Annamaria Giusti,
  • Harald Olbrich,
  • Christian Herchenröder,
  • David Alan Robertson,
  • Dominic R. Stone,
  • Eduard Isphording
  •  and Heinrich Dilly



Country in northern Europe. It extends from the Baltic Sea and the North German Plain to Lake Constance and the Bavarian Alps and Plateau, and from the North Sea and the French border to the Oder and Neisse rivers and the mountainous eastern regions of the Erzgebirge and the Fichtelgebirge. Bordered by Denmark, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Switzerland, France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands, its territory covers 357,000 sq. km of varied landscape and heterogeneous geological composition; more than a quarter is covered by forest. After World War II, from 1949 to 1990, Germany was divided, with Bonn as the capital of West Germany; the historic capital Berlin was restored after reunification in 1990 (East Berlin having served as the capital of East Germany from 1949 to 1990). Other major cities include Hamburg, Munich, Frankfurt am Main, Cologne, Leipzig, Dresden, Hannover, Bremen, Stuttgart, and Nuremberg (see figs 1...

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O. Schmitt and others, eds: Reallexikon zur deutschen Kunstgeschichte (Stuttgart, Metzler and Munich, 1937–)
F. W. H. Hollstein: German Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts, c. 1400–1700 (Amsterdam, 1954–)