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Early Christian and Byzantine artlocked

  • Margaret Mullett,
  • Elizabeth Bruening Lewis,
  • Valerie Nunn,
  • Robin Cormack,
  • Hans Buchwald,
  • W. Eugene Kleinbauer,
  • Marlia Mundell Mango,
  • Lyn Rodley,
  • William Saunders,
  • Robert Ousterhout,
  • Archibald Dunn,
  • Slobodan Ćurčić,
  • Kara Hattersley-Smith,
  • Charles Barber,
  • Christine Kondoleon,
  • Ruth E. Kolarik,
  • Lucille A. Roussin,
  • Henri Lavagne,
  • Margaret A. Alexander,
  • Melita Emmanuel,
  • Alexander Grishin,
  • J.-P. Sodini,
  • T. Zollt,
  • Lucy-Anne Hunt,
  • John Lowden,
  • Manolis Chatzidakis,
  • Nano Chatzidakis,
  • Judith Herrin,
  • Cécile Morrisson,
  • Hero Granger-Taylor,
  • Karel C. Innemée,
  • David Whitehouse,
  • Anthony Cutler,
  • Aimilia Yeroulanou
  •  and David Buckton


The art produced by the peoples of the Roman Empire from the early 4th century ad to c. 600—as well as specifically Christian art from c. 250—and that produced in the eastern half of the Empire, centred around Constantinople (Byzantium) to 1453. The Byzantine empire (see fig.) was the institutional setting for much of the medieval art of the eastern Mediterranean, and from the early 4th century ad for the Orthodox Church and so for Early Christian art. Byzantines regarded their empire as having arisen from the happy coincidence of the foundation of the Roman Empire under Augustus with the incarnation of Jesus Christ; for modern historians the empire has a clear end (1453, when the city fell to the Turks) but no clear beginning. The foundation of Constantinople (324–330) by Constantine on the site of the small town of Byzantion is the conventional point of departure, when ironically Byzantion both ceased to exist and took on a new existence; it became known later as The City, and under the Turks Istanbul (...

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M. Restle and K. Wessel, eds: Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst (Stuttgart, 1966–)