[Teng Shih-ju; Wanbai]
(b Huaining, Anhui Province, 1743; d 1805).
Chinese calligrapher and seal-carver. He is generally recognized as the founder of the stele studies (beixue) movement, which sought inspiration from the stelae of the Northern Wei period (ad 386–534; see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (a)). He is also considered the founder of the so-called Deng school of seal-carving. Deng spent most of his adult life as the guest of wealthy patrons, and supported himself at other times by selling his calligraphy and seals. His earliest and longest sojourn was with Mei Liu (zi Shijun) and lasted for eight years. Mei had an extensive collection of original bronze and stone objects and rubbings of stelae from the Qin to the Three Kingdoms period (221 bc–ad 280). Deng familiarized himself with these through painstaking imitation: he is said to have devoted six months to copying the earliest dictionary, the Dictionary of Words and Phrases...