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date: 11 December 2019

Czech Republic [Česká Republika; formerly part of Czechoslovakia]locked

  • Jan Royt,
  • Karla Huebner,
  • Jiří T. Kotalik,
  • Ivo Kořán,
  • Ivo Krsek,
  • Olga Herbenová,
  • Dagmar Tučná,
  • Olga Drahotová,
  • J. Brožová,
  • Alena Adlerová,
  • Libuše Urešová,
  • Helena Koenigsmarková,
  • Věra Vokáčová,
  • Annamaria Giusti,
  • Vladimír Hrubý
  •  and Tomáš Pergler


[Česká Republika; formerly part of Czechoslovakia]

Central European country comprising Bohemia and Moravia. It is landlocked and bounded by Austria, Germany, Poland and Slovakia and has a population of approximately 10 million. The independent republic of Czechoslovakia was founded in 1918; on 1 January 1993 it was divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The capital is Prague, in Bohemia, while the main city in Moravia is Brno. The country’s border areas are wooded and mountainous, the central areas gently rolling. Its historical and cultural development has been determined by its geographical position between Western and Eastern Europe (see fig.).

Jan Royt, revised by Karla Huebner

The first evidence of settlement in the area of the Czech Republic dates to 750,000 bc. The earliest artefacts—female figures, sculptures of animals, petroglyphs—date to the Palaeolithic period, while the earliest ceramic artefacts date to the Neolithic period and the earliest metal objects to the Late Neolithic period. The Celts settled in the country ...

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