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date: 20 November 2019

Chełmoński, Józeflocked

(b Boczki, Nov 7, 1849; d Kuklówka, April 6, 1914).
  • Janina Zielińska


(b Boczki, Nov 7, 1849; d Kuklówka, April 6, 1914).

Polish painter and illustrator. He had drawing lessons with his father and then (1867–71) attended the Warsaw Drawing Class and the private studio of Wojciech Gerson. In 1871 Chełmoński went to Munich to join the substantial community of Polish artists and studied at the Munich Akademie under Alexander Strähuber (1814–82) and Hermann Anschütz (1802–80). Chełmoński visited museums and galleries there but was also influenced by the lyrical realist style of other Polish artists in Munich, such as Maksymilian Gierymski. In Munich Chełmoński produced his first successful mature works, such as Before the Rain (1873; Warsaw, N. Mus.), remarkable for its strong sense of atmosphere. On returning to Warsaw in 1875 Chełmoński found no recognition there. The idealized picture of peasant life in Indian Summer (1875; Warsaw, N. Mus.), shown at the Warsaw Society for the Encouragement of Fine Arts, was violently attacked by the critics for being too realistic. Other paintings sent for exhibition were likewise severely criticized....

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Slownik artystów polskich i obcych w Polsce dzialjacych [Dictionary of Polish and foreign artists working in Poland] (Wroclaw, 1971)
U. Thieme and F. Becker, eds: Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 37 vols (Leipzig, 1907–50) [see also Meissner above]