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Adzhina Tepe, 7th century AD–first half of the 8th, plan: (a) enfilade of three rooms; (b)....

Adzhina Tepe, 7th century ad–first half of the 8th, plan: (a) enfilade of three rooms; (b) monastery courtyard; (c) domed cells; (d) hall or refectory; (e) sanctuary; (f) stupa; (g) subsidiary stupas; (h) small domed sanctuaries; (i) statue of Buddha in parinirvāṇa; (j) entrance to monastery; (k) ramp to first floor; (l) gates

Temple of Oxus, Takht-i Sangin, Tajikistan, 3rd–2nd century BC, plan....

Temple of Oxus, Takht-i Sangin, Tajikistan, 3rd–2nd century bc, plan

The Square Hall, Nisa, 1st or 2nd century AD; reconstruction drawing....

The Square Hall, Nisa, 1st or 2nd century ad; reconstruction drawing

Mausoleum of the Samanids

Mausoleum of the Samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, 920s; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Bukhara Magoki Attari Mosque

Bukhara, Magoki Attari Mosque, portal, 12th century; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Mosque of Bibi Khanum

Mosque of Bibi Khanum, commissioned by Timur, Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 1399–1405; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Shah-i Zinda

Shah-i Zinda, view from the west, Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 11th–19th centuries; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Shrine of Ahmad Yasavi

Shrine and tomb of Ahmad Yasavi, Turkestan, Kazakhstan, as rebuilt by Timur beginning in 1399; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Portal, Mir-i ‘Arab Madrasa

Portal, Mir-i ‘Arab Madrasa, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, 1530–36; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Bukhara Kalan Minaret

Bukhara, Kalan Minaret, 1127–9; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Pendzhikent, plan: (a) citadel; (b) Temple I; (c) Temple II; (d) city wall boundary, prior....

Pendzhikent, plan: (a) citadel; (b) Temple I; (c) Temple II; (d) city wall boundary, prior to the 6th-century extensions

Bukhara, street plan, 1558–90: (a) city proper; (b) citadel; (c) ramparts; (d) extension t....

Bukhara, street plan, 1558–90: (a) city proper; (b) citadel; (c) ramparts; (d) extension to ramparts (c. 1568–70); (e) Registan

Panel with the God Zeus/Serapis/Ohrmazd and Worshiper

Panel with the God Zeus/Serapis/Ohrmazd and a Worshipper, terracotta, gouache, h. 56.8 cm, h. 52.3 cm, d. 5.4 cm, Kushana, AD 3rd century (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Gift, 2000, Accession ID:2000.42.2); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/30006519

Shaft-hole axe head with bird-headed demon, boar, and dragon

Shaft-hole ax-head with bird-headed demon, boar and dragon, silver, gold foil, l. 15 cm , from Western Central Asia, 3rd–2nd millennium BC (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Harris Brisbane Dick Fund and James N. Spear and Schimmel Foundation Inc. Gifts, 1982, Accession ID:1982.5); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/30008823

Sasanian dish depicting Triumph of Dionysos, silver, diam. 225 mm, 3rd century AD (London,....

Sasanian dish depicting Triumph of Dionysos, silver, diam. 225 mm, 3rd century ad (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Ewer with dancing females within arcades

Ewer with dancing females within arcades, silver, mercury gilding, h. of (a) 34 cm, Sasanian, AD 6th–7th century (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Dillon Gift and Rogers Fund, 1967, Accession ID:67.10a, b); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Bowl with wheel-cut facets

Bowl with wheel-cut facets, yellow-green glass, h. 7.9 cm, Sasanian, AD 6th–7th century (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Rogers Fund, 1959, Accession ID:59.34); photo © The Metropolitan Museum of Art http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/30003495

Map of western Central Asia showing principal mountain ranges and rivers; all of the sites....

Map of western Central Asia showing principal mountain ranges and rivers; all of the sites shown have separate entries in this dictionary

Great stupa, Rawak, abandoned 7th century AD: (a) stairway; (b) base of small stupa....

Great stupa, Rawak, abandoned 7th century ad: (a) stairway; (b) base of small stupa

Embroidered liturgical banner depicting Shakyamuni Preaching on the Vulture Peak, chain st....

Embroidered liturgical banner depicting Shakyamuni Preaching on the Vulture Peak, chain stitch in colours on white plain-weave (tabby) silk, 2.41×1.60 m, from Cave 17, Mogao, near Dunhuang, 8th century ad (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Map of eastern Central Asia; those sites with separate entries in this dictionary are dist....

Map of eastern Central Asia; those sites with separate entries in this dictionary are distinguished by Cross-reference type

Registan

Registan, Samarkand, Uzbekistan, 15th century and later; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Aq Saray Palace

Aq Saray Palace, Shahr-i Sabz, Uzbekistan, 1379–96; photo credit: Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Shrine of Ahmad Yasavi, Turkestan, Kazakhstan, 1399, plan: (a) entrance portal; (b) kazanl....

Shrine of Ahmad Yasavi, Turkestan, Kazakhstan, 1399, plan: (a) entrance portal; (b) kazanlik; (c) mausoleum; (d) mosque; (e) library; (f) cells

Parthian clay plaque depicting a reclining man, 120×98 mm, from ?Uruk, 1st–2nd century AD ....

Parthian clay plaque depicting a reclining man, 120×98 mm, from ?Uruk, 1st–2nd century ad (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

Helmet

Central Asian or Tibetan helmet, probably iron and silver, ?15th to 17th centuries (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of George C. Stone, 1935, Accession ID: 36.25.96); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Whistling Arrowhead

Whistling arrowhead, iron and gold, Central Asian, Tibetan or Chinese, l. 165 mm, 14th–16th centuries (New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Purchase, Edward C. Dittus Gift, 1999, Accession ID: 1999.32); image © The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Nephrite cup with dragon-shaped handle, h. 64 mm, probably from China, 14th century, inscr....

Nephrite cup with dragon-shaped handle, h. 64 mm, probably from China, 14th century, inscribed early 15th century with the name Ulughbeg (London, British Museum); photo © The British Museum

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Enciclopedia universale dell’arte, 15 vols (Rome, 1958–67); Eng. trans. as Encyclopedia of World Art (New York, 1959–68)
[flourished]
E. Yar Shater, ed.: Encyclopedia Iranica (London, 1986)
Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden, 1954–)