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date: 14 December 2019

Austria, Federal Republic of [Österreich]locked

  • Walter Krause,
  • Mario Schwarz,
  • Eckart Vancsa,
  • Ingonda Hannesschläger,
  • Inge Podbrecky,
  • Matthias Boeckl,
  • Gottfried Biedermann,
  • Margit Stadlober,
  • Lothar Schultes,
  • Peter König,
  • Maria Pötzl-Malíková,
  • Wolfgang Huber,
  • Renate Wonisch-Langenfelder,
  • Eva B. Ottillinger,
  • Gabriele Ramsauer,
  • Barbara Wild,
  • A. Kenneth Snowman,
  • Dora Heinz,
  • Angela Volker,
  • Alfred Auer,
  • Oskar Seber,
  • Sieglinde Fraunlob
  •  and Gregor M. Lechner



Central European country, bordered by Germany, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. It is divided into nine provinces: Styria, Tyrol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg, Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Vienna, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The country is landlocked and is characterized geographically by its mountainous landscape. Its population is concentrated mainly in the river valleys, especially along the River Danube and its surrounding plains, with the most important centres developing at the junctions of major north–south routes with those running from east to west, for example at Salzburg, Innsbruck, Linz, Graz, and the capital, Vienna (see fig.). There is evidence of human activity from Paleolithic and Neolithic times (see Prehistoric Europe, §II) and of Celtic settlements at Dürrnberg, Salzburg and Hallstatt in the last centuries bc (see also Prehistoric Europe, §V), before the area was colonized by the Romans in the first century ad. This article concentrates on art in Austria from the Early Christian period to the present....

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