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date: 12 December 2019


  • Terry Smith,
  • Michael Spens,
  • Graeme Sturgeon,
  • Terence Lane,
  • Kevin Fahy,
  • Margaret Legge,
  • Geoffrey R. Edwards,
  • Judith O’Callaghan,
  • Jennifer Sanders,
  • Nancy Underhill,
  • Robert Smith
  •  and Joyce McGrath


Country and island continent. It is the world’s smallest continent (area c. 8.5 million sq. km), located between the Indian and Pacific oceans south of South-east Asia, in latitudes parallel to those of the Sahara Desert (see fig.). With an average elevation of only 300 m, Australia is also the lowest continent, its ancient landforms being heavily eroded. The most prominent feature is the Great Dividing Range, the highlands of which run the full length of eastern Australia and recur in the island of Tasmania; in the western half of the continent are extensive plateaux and ridges, with vast desert areas in the centre. The extreme north is tropical, lying within the monsoon belt north of the Tropic of Capricorn; off the north-eastern coast is the Great Barrier Reef, the world’s largest coral reef. Australia has extensive coastal plains and tablelands, those along the east coast being the most heavily populated parts of the country; the vegetation is typically dry, open woodland dominated by eucalypts. The Australian Aboriginal peoples arrived ...

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L. Roberts: A Dictionary of Japanese Artists (New York, 1976)
J. Harvey: English Mediaeval Architects: A Biographical Dictionary down to 1550 (London, 1954, rev. and enlarged 2/1984)
E. H. H. Archibald: Dictionary of Sea Painters (Woodbridge, 1980)