Antoninus Pius [before adoption, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus; as emperor, Caesar Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius]
- Luca Leoncini
[before adoption, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus; as emperor, Caesar Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius]
(b Lanuvium [now Lanuvio], nr Rome, 19 Sept ad 86; reg 138–61; d Lorium, nr Rome, 7 March ad 161).
Roman emperor and patron. His long reign was characterized by a rare security, peace and prosperity, but little architectural development in Rome compared with the reigns of his predecessors. Nevertheless, under Antoninus the monumental area of the Campus Martius was further enriched with a great octastyle peripteral temple in honour of the deified Hadrian (the Hadrianeum, ded. ad 145; see Rome, ancient, §II, 2, (i), (f)), which in part still exists. The interior decoration included reliefs personifying the provinces (most are in Rome, Mus. Conserv. and Naples, Mus. Archeol. N.) and emphasized the Emperor’s policy of bringing peace and order to the Empire. In the old and crowded centre on the Via Sacra a temple was built to Antoninus’ wife Faustina in the same year that she died and was deified (ad 141). When the Emperor died, the dedication was extended to include him. The temple, incorporated in the Middle Ages into the church of S Lorenzo in Miranda, stood on a high podium, approached by a stairway. Its façade displays six large columns of green cipollino marble with white marble Corinthian capitals, with three more columns behind on each side. On the two long sides of the cella, faced with squares of peperino tufa, runs a marble frieze with griffins flanking plant motifs....