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Ancient Near Eastlocked

  • Dominique Collon,
  • J. D. Hawkins,
  • Beatrice Teissier,
  • D. Barag,
  • G. Herrmann,
  • Jack Ogden,
  • Annie Caubet,
  • Joan Allgrove McDowell,
  • Michael Roaf,
  • Vesta Sarḳhosh Curtis,
  • Ian Carradice,
  • G. D. Summers,
  • Seton Lloyd
  •  and Geoffrey Turner


Area of the ancient world that extends from Turkey in the west to Iran in the east (see fig.). Although the term Near East is often synonymous with Middle East, the adjective ‘ancient’ is always attached to Near East, and ‘Ancient Middle East’ never occurs. The term Western Asia is sometimes preferred. The ancient history, arts and architecture of the countries in this area are treated elsewhere in this dictionary under the headings Anatolia, ancient, Syria-Palestine, Mesopotamia and Iran, ancient. Vast though this area is, the cultures and civilizations that flourished in the Ancient Near East from prehistoric times to the early centuries ad often exerted an influence that reached still further. In general, however, peripheral regions, such as Arabia and Afghanistan, are not included in this survey. From the time of the campaigns of Alexander the Great (reg 336–323 bc) to the Islamic conquest in the mid-7th century ...

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E. H. H. Archibald: Dictionary of Sea Painters (Woodbridge, 1980)