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Amat (y Junyent), Manuel (de )locked

(b Vacarisses, 1704; d Barcelona, Feb 14, 1782).
  • Humberto Rodríguez-Camilloni

Spanish architect, engineer, and administrator, active in Peru. He was the second son of the Marquis de Castellbell and received military training at an early age. He served as Spanish governor in Chile (1755–61), acquiring a reputation there as a fortifications expert. In 1761 he was appointed Viceroy of Peru, where he launched a vast campaign of public works (see Peru, Republic of §III 1.). During his administrative term, which lasted until 1776, the city of Lima enjoyed a period of prosperity and splendour marked by the French Baroque taste favoured by the Spanish Court. The evidence strongly suggests that Amat was the designer of several monuments in Lima that were executed by the alarife (surveyor and inspector of works) Juan de la Roca, who may have also collaborated in the elaboration of some of the plans. Amat’s masterpiece was the church of Las Nazarenas (consecrated 1771; see Peru, Republic of §III 1.), with a scenographic interior influenced by Ferdinando Galli Bibiena, who had worked in Barcelona. Other major works attributed to him include the camarín or chapel of the Virgin (1774) behind the main altar of the church of La Merced, the belfry tower (1775) of the church of S Domingo, and a chapel (c. 1775) in the convent of Las Mercedarias, all in Lima. In addition, the Paseo de Aguas (begun 1770; formerly La Navona), Lima, which was a rare example of Baroque urban design in the district of Rímac, may have been conceived by Amat himself. He sent designs for the Palacio de la Virreina (begun 1772), Barcelona, back to Spain. It is distinguished by a restrained façade articulated by colossal pilasters over a rusticated base set off by a balustraded roof-line borne on consoles and punctuated by heavy stone vases.

Bibliography

  • E. Harth-Terré: ‘¿Dibujó realmente el Virrey Amat lo que se le atribuye?’, Cultura peruana, vol.1 (1941), pp. 17–18
  • V. Rodríguez Casado and F. Pérez Embid, eds: Memoria de gobierno del Virrey Amat (Seville, 1947)
  • V. Rodríguez Casado and F. Pérez Embid: Construcciones militares del Virrey Amat (Seville, 1949)
  • G. Guarda: ‘El Virrey Amat y los Jesuitas: Los Ataques a las Misiones de Valdivia’, Historia [Chile], vol.6 (Jan 1967), p. 263
  • A. Sáenz-Rico Urbina: El Virrey Amat, 2 vols (Barcelona, 1967)
  • J. García Bryce: ‘Observaciones sobre cuatro obras atribuídas al Virrey Amant’, Arquitectura y urbanismo, vol.1(4) (1988), pp. 12–29
  • H. Rodríguez-Camilloni: ‘Manuel de Amat y Junyent y la Navona de Lima: un ejemplo de diseño urbano barroco del siglo XVIII en el virreinato de Perú’, UNAM Anales del Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, vol.22(74–5) (1999), pp. 147–76
  • Los cuadros de mestizaje del virrey Amat; La representación etnográfica en el Perú colonial (exh. cat. by J. C. Estenssoro and others, Lima, Mus. A., 1999)
  • R. L. Casalino Castro: Las calles del virrey: el mojón filosofal (Lima, 2001)
  • I. L. Aragón and others : El virrey Amat y su tiempo (Lima, 2004)
  • V. Pascual: L’aventura del virrei Amat (Barcelona, 2008)