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date: 24 September 2023



  • Judith McKenzie,
  • R. R. R. Smith,
  • Wiktor A. Daszewski,
  • A. H. Enklaar,
  • Dominic Montserrat,
  • C. Walters
  •  and Wladyslaw B. Kubiak
  • , revised by Gordon Campbell,
  • Sheila S. Blair
  •  and Jonathan M. Bloom

Updated in this version

updated and revised, 26 May 2010

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Encyclopaedia of Islam, 8 vols and suppl. (Leiden, 1913–36/R 1987)