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date: 15 September 2019


  • Paul Richards,
  • David W. Phillipson,
  • Jan Vansina,
  • John Middleton,
  • Jeremy Coote,
  • S. J. Vernoit,
  • Philip L. Ravenhill,
  • Henry John Drewal,
  • Judith Perani,
  • Norma H. Wolff,
  • John Picton,
  • Victoria L. Rovine,
  • Monni Adams,
  • Marion Johnson,
  • Daniel J. Crowley,
  • Mary Jo Arnoldi,
  • Christraud M. Geary,
  • Frederick Lamp,
  • Suzanne Preston Blier,
  • Jean M. Borgatti,
  • Herbert M. Cole,
  • Donald J. Cosentino,
  • Natalie Tobert,
  • Marla C. Berns,
  • Robert T. Soppelsa,
  • Eugenia Herbert,
  • Fred T. Smith,
  • William J. Dewey,
  • Kathy Curnow,
  • John Mack,
  • Margret Carey,
  • Carolee G. Kennedy,
  • Barbara E. Frank,
  • Christine Mullen Kreamer,
  • T. J. H. Chappel,
  • Paul Oliver,
  • Louis Perrois,
  • Susan Vogel,
  • Doran H. Ross,
  • Erin Haney,
  • David A. Binkley,
  • Simon Ottenberg,
  • Cornelius Adepegba,
  • Joanne Bubolz Eicher,
  • Nancy Ingram Nooter,
  • Marie-Thérèse Brincard,
  • Diane M. Pelrine,
  • Josette Rivallain,
  • Pierre de Maret,
  • J. D. Lewis-Williams,
  • Sheila S. Blair,
  • Jonathan M. Bloom,
  • David Appleyard,
  • Patrick R. McNaughton,
  • Leon Siroto,
  • A. P. Bourgeois,
  • Anitra Nettleton,
  • Chika Okeke-Agulu,
  • Theodore Celenko,
  • Adam Jones,
  • Kathleen Bickford Berzock,
  • Amy Powell
  •  and Janet L. Stanley


Continent second only to Asia in size with a total area of 29,800,000 sq. km and a total population of 628 million (UN estimate, 1989). This survey focuses on the art traditions of Sub-Saharan Africa (i.e. south of the Sahara Desert), especially those of pre-colonial times as they continued into colonial and post-colonial times. It should be noted here that, while the major interest of scholars has been the study of unacculturated traditions, the fieldwork that makes such studies possible has been conducted many years, even centuries, after the time of first European contact. Furthermore, the notion of 'Sub-Saharan' Africa as a cultural entity, although still useful, is to some extent an arbitrary generalization: there has been both a high degree of internal diversity within the continent and much greater economic and political exchange between Africa and the outside world than was previously thought. Africa in the late 20th century comprises more than 50 independent nation states (...

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History in the Arts
Travaux et mémoires de l’Institut d’ethnologie
Art and Society Series
World Anthropology
Reference Publications in Art History
F. Goldstein: Monogramm–Lexikon (Berlin, 1964)
Traditional Arts of Africa
Cahiers ORSTOM Sciences Humaines
British Archaeological Reports
Studien zur Kulturkunde
Working Papers in the Traditional Arts
Papers of the Peabody Museum for Archaeology and Ethnology
Tribal Art
African Studies Center Working Papers
S. Sadie, ed.: The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 3 vols (London, 1984)
Veröffentlichungen des Museums für Völkerkunde, Berlin