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(b Barcelona, Dec 15, 1847; d Barcelona, July 9, 1918).

Catalan industrialist and patron. After completing his studies in England, he returned to Barcelona to head the textile manufacturing company founded by his father, Joan Güell i Ferrer. He strongly supported Catalan nationalism and used his patronage of such Catalan Renaixença figures as the poet Ramón Picó i Campamar, the novelist Robles i Rodríguez Alcántara, the painter Alexis Clapés (1850–1920) and especially the architect Antoni Gaudí, whom he met in 1878, to promote his progressive and paternalist visions of society. The first work by Gaudí for Güell was the gate-house of his finca at Pedralbes, outside Barcelona (1884); the turrets covered with coloured ceramics show Gaudí’s interest in Islamic architecture. The Palau Güell, Güell’s residence in Barcelona (1886–91), is an extraordinary neo-Gothic palace, which contains some of Gaudí’s most innovative interiors. The elaborate wrought-iron ornament of the entrance arches and bay windows is one of the earliest examples of the Catalan ...



French collectors and patrons. Pierre Lévy (b Guebwiller, Haut-Rhin, 11 April 1907; d 25 March 2002), an industrialist specializing in textiles, and his wife Denise Lévy (née Lièvre) donated in 1976 a substantial part of their collection of c. 4000 works of art and objets d’art to the Musées Nationaux de France. Housed in the Musée d’Art Moderne, Troyes, in the old bishop’s residence, the gift includes 337 paintings, 1277 drawings, 104 sculptures, 1 print, another 157 works of art and 81 pieces of African art. The Lévys collected over a period of 40 years, acquiring many works directly from artists with whom they were friends as much as patrons. In addition to works of art, they also collected artists’ letters. The collection focuses on French art from c. 1880 to the mid–1970s; it is particularly strong on the work of the Fauves, although it also includes work by Cubist artists and works from the mid-19th century. The collection includes four bronzes by ...


Teresa del Conde

revised by Deborah Caplow

(b Juchitán, Oaxaca, Jul 17, 1940).

Mexican painter, sculptor, textile designer, printmaker, and collector. He grew up in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, an area that was rich in legends, rites, and beliefs springing from a strong Zapotec tradition predating the Spanish conquest of Mexico. He began to draw and paint at a very early age, studying first in Oaxaca, where he produced linocuts in the graphic workshop run by Arturo García Bustos (1926–2017). In 1957 he moved to Mexico City to attend the Escuela de Diseño y Artesanía of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. After holding his first solo shows of gouaches and prints in 1959 in Fort Worth, Texas, and Mexico City, he moved in 1960 to Paris, where until 1963 he studied printmaking under Stanley William Hayter. While continuing to work within Western traditions, he became interested in the art of Asian cultures and in ancient Mexican art, especially in those forms that were not officially sanctioned....