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Ackermann, Georges Friedrich  

German, 19th century, male.

Born 1787, in Mainz; died 1843, in Frankfurt.

Painter. Landscapes.

Brother and pupil of Johann Ackermann, he quickly established a reputation as a landscape artist and set himself up near his brother in Frankfurt.


Adam, Patrick William  

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 October 1854, in Edinburgh; died 1929, in North Berwick.

Painter (including gouache). Interiors with figures, landscapes, urban landscapes, gardens, urban views, architectural views, interiors, portraits.

Having studied at the Royal Scottish Academy under George Paul Chalmers and MacTaggart, Patrick Adam went on to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy at the age of 18 and at the London Royal Academy ...


Adam, William  

Damie Stillman

(b Kirkcaldy, Fife, Oct 30, 1689; d Edinburgh, June 24, 1748).

Scottish architect and landscape designer. He was the leading architect in Scotland during the second quarter of the 18th century and had an extensive practice. An important contractor for the Government, serving from 1730 to his death as Master Mason to the Board of Ordnance for North Britain, he also pursued various business enterprises, including ownership of a brickworks. Apparently self-taught as an architect, he was involved with building country houses from the early 1720s. His early patron, SirJohn Clerk, 2nd Baronet of Penicuik, made his own library available to Adam, and in 1727 they made a joint trip to England. Adam developed a style that was influenced by Sir John Vanbrugh, James Gibbs and the English Palladianism of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork, and his circle. Thus, Baroque and Palladian forms co-existed in his work, although he handled them in a very personal and inventive way....


Adams, Douglas  

British, 19th century, male.

Painter. Landscapes with figures, landscapes.

Douglas Adams, a landscape artist, exhibited from 1880 at the Royal Academy, the Suffolk Street Gallery and the New Gallery.

London, 23 April 1910: George from Sannox on the Isle of Aran, GBP 42

London, 8 May 1981...


Adams, Eliott Ashfield  

British, 19th century, male.

Active in Liverpoolc.1870.

Landscape artist.


Adams, Kenneth Miller  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1897, in Topeka (Kansas); died 1966, in Albuquerque.

Painter. Landscapes.

Kenneth Miller Adams was a landscape artist who exhibited at the Salon d'Automne in 1922.


Adriaensen, Jasper  

Flemish School, 17th century, male.

Active in Antwerp.

Died 1632.

Painter. Landscapes.

Antwerp School.

Jasper Adriaensen was a free master of the Guild of St Luke. When the landscape artist Abraham Goyvaerts died, leaving his work unfinished, friends of Adriaensen implored him to finish Goyvaerts's paintings - a testimony to the esteem in which he was held as an artist....


Agellio, Giuseppe  

Italian, 16th – 17th century, male.

Active in Romec.1620.

Born 1570, in Sorrento.

Painter. Landscapes.

A pupil of Roncali known as 'delle Pomarancie', Giuseppe Agellio possessed remarkable talent as a landscape artist and was often employed by painters of that period to execute the landscapes and backgrounds of their works. He also demonstrated great ability in the painting of architectural motifs....


Albert, Ernest  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1900, in Berchem; died 1976, in Antwerp.

Painter, watercolourist. Nudes, portraits, landscapes, still-lifes.

Ernest Albert studied at the fine art academy in Antwerp and under the landscape artist Franz Courtens at the Antwerp Higher Institute. He became a founder member of the ...


Alberti, Ignaz  

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Active in Vienna, from 1780 to 1801.

Died 1802.

Engraver (line-engraving), draughtsman.

According to Bartsch, he was a pupil of landscape artist Brand. By 1787 he had a major studio where he employed 20 or so engravers making maps and English drawings. His name appears on the title page ...


Alberts, Dietrich Wilhelm  

German, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes.

Dietrich Alberts participated in the Berlin Exhibition of 1910 with the following paintings: Music, Female Doctors, Portrait of the Landscape Artist Widhagen.


Alcock, (Walter) Jimmy  

Enrique Larrañaga


(b Caracas, Sept 14, 1932).

Venezuelan architect. After finishing elementary and middle school in Caracas, where he was born, Alcock attended St. Edmund’s College High School (1946–1949) and University of Cambridge School of Chemistry (1949–1952), both in England. Back in Caracas, he enrolled in the School of Architecture of Central University, graduating in 1959. While a student, he worked for Venezuelan architect Alejandro Pietri and Brazilian landscapist Roberto Burle-Marx on various landscape architecture projects.

With José Miguel Galia (1919–2009), who had been his tutor at School, Alcock founded Galia & Alcock, Arquitectos Asociados (1959–1962). For Galia, a respected Uruguayan architect who had been working in Venezuela since 1948, architecture should at once respond to a building’s function climate, and incorporate technological innovations and operate as an assemblage of materiality and location that celebrates and intensifies both. Among the projects Galia and Alcock designed together, those for public spaces in both urban and natural environments were the most celebrated, particularly the Macuto Beachfront (...


Allard-Frère, Noémie  

French, 20th century, female.

Active in Rouen at the beginning of the 20th century.

Born in Rouen.

Landscape artist.

Noémie Allard-Frère exhibited landscapes of Brittany at the Salon des Indépendants in 1907 and 1910.


Alphand, (Jean-Charles-)Adolphe  

Denis A. Lambin

(b Grenoble, Oct 26, 1817; d Paris, Dec 6, 1891).

French landscape architect and civil engineer. A graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique (1835) and Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (1838), Paris, he was sent to Bordeaux to reorganize the harbour’s access and the forest of the Landes. In 1851 Georges Eugène Haussmann, the newly appointed Préfet de la Gironde, asked Alphand to prepare the festivities in honour of the official visit of the French President, Prince Louis Napoleon. After the Prince became emperor, as Napoleon III, in 1852, he ordered Haussmann to transform Paris into a modern metropolis. In 1854 Haussmann summoned Alphand to redesign the Bois de Boulogne. Alphand arrived from Bordeaux with the horticulturist and landscape architect Jean-Pierre Barillet-Deschamps (1824–75), and together they carried out a vast number of projects, cutting straight avenues through historic, often picturesque, districts. Alphand also designed airy public gardens and parks, in accord with Haussmann’s overall scheme. He laid out the Bois de Vincennes (...


Alton Towers  

Brent Elliott

English house and garden in Staffordshire. The garden was first laid out between 1814 and 1827 by the owner, Charles Talbot, 15th Earl of Shrewsbury, with assistance from the landscape gardener John Buonarotti Papworth and the architect Robert Abraham (1774–1850); it was further improved by John Talbot, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury (see Talbot, John, 16th Earl of Shrewsbury). The major landscape feature at Alton Towers is the valley in the grounds, which Shrewsbury, Papworth and Abraham filled with an astonishing ‘labyrinth of terraces, curious architectural walls, trellis-work arbours, vases, statues, stairs, pavements … ornamental buildings, bridges, porticoes, temples, pagodas, gates, iron railings, parterres, jets, ponds, streams, seats, fountains, caves, flower baskets, waterfalls, rocks, cottages … rock-work, shell-work, root-work, moss houses, old trunks of trees [and] entire dead trees’ (Gdnrs Magazine, vii, 1831); in addition a fashionable Swiss-style cottage was built. Some of these works, in particular ...


Long [née Hume], Amelia, Lady Farnborough  

Tessa Sidey

(b London, Jan 29, 1772; d Bromley Hill, Kent, Jan 15, 1837).

English watercolourist and garden designer, wife of Charles Long. The daughter of Sir Abraham Hume, she completed her formal classical education with a visit to Italy, before marrying in 1793. The couple acquired Bromley Hill Place in Kent, and Amelia designed the celebrated Italianate grounds that subsequently became the main source for her sketches in watercolour, pencil, charcoal with chalk and soft-ground etching of Views of Bromley Hill (1805; London, BM). She was reputed to be the favourite pupil of Thomas Girtin, and her early work is distinguished by a broad topographical style. Her View of St Paul’s from the Thames (1805; Edinburgh, N.G.) is one of several accomplished copies after Girtin. In her later work she concentrated on the picturesque elements of architecture, natural foliage and country scenery under the influence of Henry Edridge and Dr Thomas Monro. Apart from three trips to France and Holland between ...


Ancy-le-Franc, château of  

Gordon Campbell

French 16th-century château and garden near Tonnerre, in Burgundy. Antoine de Clermont, brother-in-law of Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers commissioned Sebastiano Serlio, who was employed at the court of Francis I, to design the château and garden; construction on a large level site began c. 1546. The house is built around a large rectangular courtyard of majestic proportions. The twelve principal rooms on the ground floor, notably the Chambre des Nudités and the Chambre de Diane, are adorned with tapestries and frescoes. On the first floor, the apartments and galleries were sumptuously decorated by Francesco Primaticcio.

A drawing by Jacques Du Cerceau shows that the original gardens echoed the rectangular shape of the house. A huge rectangular raised terrace was constructed around the house and garden, and this terrace was used as a promenade from which house and gardens could be viewed.

S. Frommel: Sebastiano Serlio, architecte de la Renaissance...


Anet, château of  

V. Hoffmann

French 16th-century château c. 75 km west of Paris, in the département of Eure-et-Loire. In 1546 Duchesse de Valentinois Diane de Poitiers, widow of Louis de Brézé (d 1531), began to build a modest house in the village of Anet; it underwent considerable and magnificent enlargement (after 1547, until 1553) when her lover Henry II became King of France and placed Philibert de L’Orme and virtually unlimited resources at her disposal. The château is built on a moated site around three courtyards with gardens to the north. Around the middle court, the Cour du Seigneur, were three residential wings and the entrance gate set in a screen wall. To the east lay the estate farm buildings around the Basse Cour, while to the west was the Cour de la Fontaine and beyond it the tennis-court, the stables and Diane de Poitiers’ burial chapel. Largely demolished (1798–1811...


Anhalt-Dessau, (Leopold III Frederick) Francis, Prince of  

Erhard Hirsch

[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...


Arad, Ron  

Gordon Campbell

(b Tel Aviv, 1951).

Israeli designer, active in Britain. In 1981 Arad founded, with Caroline Thorman, One Off Ltd, a design studio, workshops and showroom in Covent Garden, London. In 1989, again with Caroline Thorman, he founded Ron Arad Associates, an architecture and design practice in Chalk Farm. In 1994 he established the Ron Arad Studio in Como (Italy). His most famous design is the Rover Chair, which recycled used Rover car seats. He has long had an interest in the use of steel, and the Bookwork bookshelves (...