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David Aradeon

[Yoruba Eko]

Capital city of Nigeria, on the Gulf of Guinea. Aerial photography reveals a mosaic of land use patterns: large traditional compound spaces in such neighbourhoods as Oke Arin and Oshodi are separated, by British urban planning norms, from the ‘garden city’, one-acre lots in Ikoyi and Ikeja, where the colonial officers lived. Tenuous roads and bridges link Lagos Island with the mainland, including Apapa, through Iddo Island, on which the railway terminal and old Ijora power station are sited.

Lagos has a dual heritage, based first on the Idejo, land-owning chiefs and descendants of the Awori Yoruba founders from Ife, and then on the Edos (see Edo), who established a military camp in the second half of the 16th century at Enu Owa. The crowning of an Oba of Lagos, or the capping of any white cap chief, depends on the performance of sacred rites at Enu Owa for both spiritual blessing and legal validity. Edo rule also instituted a political and social structure, of which the Prime Minister (Eletu Odibo) is the most important official....


Deborah A. Middleton

The first national parks were conceived to preserve the natural wonders of a primeval American wilderness that served as inspiration for American painters and photographers. American landscape architecture and park design were central to the emergence of the National Park System at the end of the 19th century, and the permanent conservation of threatened areas of natural beauty. Photography and landscape painting strongly influenced the aesthetic appreciation of unspoiled nature. Photography informed the construction of pictorial spaces, distances, situated views in unexpected places, lighting, angle of view, framing of the view. The overwhelming experience of America’s natural places influenced painters, such as Thomas Cole, Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt, and naturalists, such as John Muir, whose emphasis on the transcendental vision of wilderness began to shape a desire to conserve these places as national symbols of America. Moran’s paintings of Yellowstone Park were influential in designating Yellowstone as America’s first national park on ...