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Article

Abdul-Medjid Effendi  

Turkish, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 29 May 1868, in Constantinople (now Istanbul); died 23 August 1944, in Paris.

Painter and collector. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

Abdul-Medjid was the son of Sultan Abdülaziz, and later Crown Prince of the Ottoman Empire and Caliph. He was taught painting by Fausto Zonaro, an Italian artist who worked in the Ottoman court ...

Article

Ahmet Ali  

S. J. Vernoit

[Şeker Ahmet Pasha]

(b Üsküdar, Istanbul, 1841; d Istanbul, 1907).

Turkish painter. In 1859 he became an assistant teacher of painting at the Military Medical High School in Istanbul. In 1864 Sultan Abdülaziz (reg 1861–76) sent him to Paris where, after a preparatory education at a special Ottoman school, he studied painting in the studio of Gustave Boulanger and then under Jean-Léon Gérôme at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Ahmet Ali was also instrumental in the acquisition of paintings from France for the Ottoman court. After nearly eight years of studies in Paris, he stayed in Rome for a year before returning to Istanbul, where he resumed his work at the Military Medical High School. In 1873 he organized in Istanbul the first group exhibition of paintings by Turkish and foreign artists to be held in Turkey. He was later appointed master of ceremonies at the Ottoman court and by the time of his death had risen to the office of intendant of the palace. His paintings were influenced by European art. They include landscapes, such as ...

Article

Alwani, Khouzayma  

Syrian, 20th century, male.

Born 1934, in Hama.

Painter. Figures, scenes with figures. Stage sets.

Symbolism.

Group of Ten.

Khouzayma Alwani trained at the academy of fine art in Rome in 1957 and received his diploma as a theatre artist in 1964. In 1973, he was awarded another diploma, this time from the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He has been Professor at the school of fine arts in Damascus since ...

Article

Anli, Hakki  

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 6 October 1920, in Istanbul.

Painter.

Hakki Anli was a student at Istanbul’s school of fine art until 1942, moving to Paris in 1946. His early work was of the realist genre, but he was later influenced by Picasso’s cubist art and abstract art. His painting was thus solidly based on a cubist infrastructure but gradually became freer in time....

Article

Assyrian Revival  

Frederick N. Bohrer

Style of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th, inspired by Assyrian artefacts of the 9th to 7th centuries bc. These were first brought to public attention through the excavations by Paul-Emile Botta (1802–70) at Khorsabad and Austen Henry Layard at Nimrud in the 1840s. By 1847 both the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London had begun to display these objects, the size and popularity of which were such that the Louvre created a separate Musée des Antiquités Orientales, while the British Museum opened its separate Nineveh Gallery in 1853. The same popularity, fuelled by Layard’s best-selling Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) and Botta’s elaborate Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849–50), led to further explorations elsewhere in Mesopotamia.

Assyrian revivalism first appeared in England rather than France, which was then in political turmoil. The earliest forms of emulation can be found in the decorative arts, such as the ‘Assyrian style’ jewellery that was produced in England from as early as ...

Article

Bakalian, Aram  

Armenian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1860, in Constantinople; died 1925.

Painter. Landscapes, interiors.

Aram Bakalian was a pupil of P. and A. Laurens in Paris. He exhibited at the Salon d’Automne (1907), the Salon des Indépendants (1926), and the Salon des Artistes Français (...

Article

Bastuji, Kemal  

Turkish, 20th century, male.

Active in France since 1947.

Born 2 April 1923, in Malatya.

Painter.

Kemal Bastuji studied classical philology before moving to France. His painting develops the symbolism of ritual images of Asia Minor, merging it with the great universal myths.

The first group exhibition at which he exhibited was held in ...

Article

Bonfils, Maurice  

Lebanese, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Painter. Figures, landscapes, seascapes, still-lifes.

Maurice Bonfils’ Post-Impressionist landscapes are often a nostalgic throwback to his time in Lebanon. At times, not least in his still-lifes, there is the merest suggestion of Cubist geometricisation. He shows his work at group exhibitions in Lebanon and in France, including the Paris Salon d’Automne (...

Article

Brabazon, Hercules Brabazon  

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 27 November 1821, in Paris, to English parents; died 14 May 1906, in Oakland Battle, USA.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Landscapes.

Brabazon studied briefly under James D'Egville and Alfred Downing Fripp but was largely self-taught. He travelled to Spain, Italy, Egypt, the Indies and France, bringing back many landscapes in watercolour. He also made many copies of the masters during his travels. He became a member of the New English Art Club in 1891. He exhibited his work in London, particularly from 1865 until 1870....

Article

Brangwyn, Frank (Sir)  

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1867, in Bruges, Belgium, to English parents; died 11 June 1956, in Ditchling.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, figure compositions, figures, local scenes (carnival), rustic scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views, urban views, harbour scenes, seascapes...

Article

Carrick-Fox, Ethel  

British, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born 7 February 1872, in Uxbridge (Middlesex); died 17 June 1952, in Melbourne.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes, flowers.

Ethel Carrick trained with Francis Bate and at the Slade School of Fine Art under Frederick Brown and Henry Tonks. She married the Australian painter Emanuel Phillips Fox in 1905 and together they settled in Paris. She was a member of the Salon d'Automne and exhibited there from the time of its foundation. She also exhibited at the Salon of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon des Indépendants. She was a member of the Union Internationale des Beaux-Arts et des Lettres, a sociétaire of the Salon d'Automne from 1911, and the vice-president of the International Union of Women Painters until 1913. At the outbreak of World War I, the Fox's returned to Australia. Following her husband's death in 1915, Carrick-Fox travelled extensively in Europe, the Middle East and Asia with regular trips to Australia where she continued to exhibit her work....

Article

Chabanian, Arsène  

Armenian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active then naturalised in France.

Born 1864, in Erzurum; died 1949, in Paris.

Painter, pastellist, engraver. Seascapes, landscapes.

Chabanian became the pupil of Gustave Moreau in Paris after studying with Paoletti. He received an honourable mention in 1896 at the Salon des Artistes Français, and another at the Exposition Universelle in 1900. He exhibited at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, and participated in the Exposition in Brussels in 1910, when he was made a Chevalier in the Légion d’Honneur. He also exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1939, and the Salon des Indépendants in 1943....

Article

Chahnazar, Kuyumjian  

Armenian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Chabin-kara-Hisar.

Painter.

The pupil of J.-P. Laurens, Chahnazar won a 3rd class medal at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1928 and was a member of the Salon d’Automne. He is best known for his views of Paris....

Article

Christol, Frédéric Daniel Henri  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 April 1850, in Paris; died 14 December 1933, in Paris.

Painter, draughtsman. Mythological subjects, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures.

Christol studied drawing while working in an architectural practice in 1866. In 1872 he qualified as a teacher of drawing at public schools run by the City of Paris. In ...

Article

Corm, Daoud  

W. Ali

(b Ghosta, 1852; d Beirut, 1930).

Lebanese painter. In 1870 he went to Rome and enrolled at the Academia di S Luca, where he trained under Roberto Bompiani (1821–1908), the Italian court painter, and was thus probably the first Arab artist to train abroad. During his five years in Italy, Corm studied the works of Renaissance artists, whose influence was evident throughout his works. He gained official recognition when he was commissioned to paint a portrait of Pope Pius IX (reg 1846–78). On his return to Lebanon in 1875, he painted portraits of many distinguished Arabs including Khedive Abbas II of Egypt (reg 1892–1914) in 1894. Corm was best known as a religious painter, and there are many of his paintings in churches in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and Palestine. He trained under a number of pioneer artists, including Habib Srour (1860–1938) and Khalil Saleeby (1870–1928). His portraits are a source of information on national costumes of the period....

Article

Corm, Daoud  

Lebanese, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1852, in Ghosta; died 1930.

Painter. Religious subjects, portraits.

In 1870, aged eighteen, he left for Rome, where he remained for five years and where he studied at the institute of fine arts of the court painter Roberto Bompiani. During his stay, he visited museums and collections, learning to appreciate Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian and so on. He exhibited in Paris, during the Exposition Universelle of ...

Article

Delavallée, Henri  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1862, in Rheims; died 1943.

Painter, pastellist, engraver (etching). Figures, portraits, landscapes, village views, architectural views, seascapes.

From 1886 to 1891, Henri Delavallée regularly visited Pont-Aven in Brittany where he met Gauguin, Émile Bernard and Seguin. In Paris, where he had a studio, he also met with other artists of the Pont-Aven school. In 1891 he left for the Middle East and settled in Istanbul, remaining there for ten years before returning to Brittany. Delavallée painted Breton landscapes in a pointillist style, sunburnt Turkish landscapes and portraits of the Grand Vizir and members of his court in solidly structured compositions....

Article

Diranian, Sarkis  

Turkish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1859, in Istanbul, to Armenian parents; died 1938, in Paris.

Painter. Portraits, genre scenes, landscapes.

A pupil of Guillemet at the art academy of the same name set up in Istanbul in 1874, Diranian also studied under Jean-Léon Gérome in Paris, where he eventually settled. His elegant portraits, his landscapes, and his views of Pera and Istanbul are painted in a sober manner using a minimum of colours....

Article

Eysseric, Joseph  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 20 November 1860, in Carpentras (Vaucluse); died 3 July 1932, in Carpentras.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman. Seascapes, landscapes.

Joseph Eysseric was a pupil of the two Laurens brothers, Jules and Jean Bonaventure. He travelled in Europe and the Middle East in ...

Article

Gabashvili, Georgy  

Sergey Kuznetsov

[Gigo] (Ivanovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Nov 22, 1862; d Tsikhisdziri, Oct 28, 1936).

Georgian painter. He studied at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts, where he was influenced by Gotfrid Villeval’de (1818–1903), painter of battle-scenes, and he held his first exhibition in 1891. He was also well acquainted with the Wanderers, and his Three Townsmen (1893; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.) displays his aspirations towards Critical Realism. Seeking new sources of inspiration Gabashvili travelled to Central Asia where studies and sketches similar to the work of Vasily Vereshchagin resulted in Bazaar in Samarkand (1896; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.; another version, 1897), in which a mastery of drawing is combined with commonplace colouring and weak composition. He also travelled to Munich but was not impressed by the modernism of German painters. In 1895, Il’ya Repin received a gold medal for his Zaporozhe Cossacks Write a Letter to the Turkish Sultan (main version 1880–91; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), a painting that greatly influenced Gabashvili, who from ...