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Mark Jones

(b Bordeaux, Nov 4, 1761; d Paris, Dec 10, 1822).

French medallist, engraver and illustrator. He was first apprenticed to the medallist André Lavau (d 1808) and then attended the Académie de Peinture et de Sculpture in Bordeaux. In 1786 he travelled to Paris and entered the workshop of Nicolas-Marie Gatteaux. His first great success was a large, realistic and highly detailed medal representing the Fall of the Bastille (1789); because it would have been difficult and risky to strike, he produced it in the form of single-sided lead impressions or clichés, coloured to resemble bronze. The following year he used this novel technique again, to produce an equally successful companion piece illustrating the Arrival of Louis XVI in Paris. Andrieu lay low during the latter part of the French Revolution, engraving vignettes and illustrating an edition of Virgil by Firmin Didot (1764–1836). He reappeared in 1800, with medals of the Passage of the Great St Bernard...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 3 March 1763, in Paris; died 19 April 1810, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, painter. Religious subjects. Statues, busts, low reliefs.

Antoine Denis Chaudet studied under Jean-Baptiste Stouf and Étienne Gois. He was awarded the second Prix de Rome in ...


Norihisa Mizuta

[Ippō; Shiin; San’unsuigetsu Shujin; Ryūkōkaku; Gyokujundō; Seishūken]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1665; d Edo, 1737).

Japanese seal-carver and calligrapher. The Ikenaga were a powerful provincial family in Odawara, Sagami Province (now Kanagawa Prefect.). In 1593 they moved to Edo, where they ran a pharmacy as well as being the head family of their residential district. Dōun was adopted into the Ikenaga family and became its fifth-generation head. He enjoyed learning from an early age and studied with Sakakibara Kōshū (1655–1706); his close friends included such seal-carvers as Hosoi Kōtaku (also a distinguished calligrapher) and Imai Junsai (1658–1718). His seal album Ittō banshō (‘One blade, a myriad images’; 1713; Japan, N. Mizuta priv. col.; see Japan, §XVII, 20) was the forerunner of artistic seal albums in Japan. It is in four volumes, the first two showing 328 seals carved in different styles, based on the Senjimon (the ‘Thousand-character’ Chinese classic); the third is a collection of the impressions of 170 private seals in Dōun’s own collection. Prefaces from major scholars and Koreans and Chinese resident in Japan, as well as Dōun’s own prefatory remarks, are bound together in another volume. Only 100 copies of the ...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...


Klaus Lankheit


(b ?April 9, 1691; d Mannheim, Jan 11, 1752).

German sculptor, stuccoist, draughtsman and illustrator. He was the most important sculptor active in Franconia and the Palatinate in the first half of the 18th century; nevertheless, although his very individual late Baroque sculpture, mostly carved in wood, was highly regarded by his contemporaries, he was quickly forgotten after his death. His rich oeuvre was severely depleted, particularly as a result of World War II. It was only after that date that his importance was reassessed. Egell probably served an apprenticeship with the Würzburg sculptor Balthasar Esterbauer (1672–1722) and collaborated on the interior decoration of the Banz monastery. His first documented work is an expressive Crucifix made in 1716 for St Michael’s Monastery in Bamberg (now in St Otto, Bamberg). His stylistic development was affected by his work between 1716–17 and 1719 as one of the team directed by Balthasar Permoser, which made all the sculptural decorations at the Zwinger in Dresden for ...


Ju-Hsi Chou

[Kao Feng-han; hao Nanfu Shanren]

(b Jiaozhou (modern Jiao xian), Shandong Province, 1683; d ?Shandong Province, 1748–9).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, seal-carver, collector and poet. The son of a minor official in charge of local education, Gao developed an interest in poetry, painting and seal-carving in his early youth, when he also began to collect old seals and inkstones. The great poet Wang Shizhen took a liking to him and left instructions before his death that Gao be admitted into the ranks of his disciples. A relative of the poet, Wang Qilei, also provided Gao with some formal instruction in the art of painting, beyond what he could learn from his father, an amateur painter of orchids and bamboo. Gao’s official career did not begin until 1729, when he took up an appointment as assistant magistrate of She xian, Anhui Province. In 1734 a new assignment took him to Taizhou, east of Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province. In 1736, having become entangled in a legal dispute involving a chief commissioner of the salt gabelle, he was briefly imprisoned; this and his deteriorating health, which resulted in the paralysis of his right hand, inevitably led to his resignation from officialdom....


Russian, 18th century, male.

Sculptor, engraver.

We know of his illustrations for two prayer-books which were printed in Chernikov in 1703. Fiertusky was a clergyman.


British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 6 July 1755, in York; died 7 December 1826, in London.

Sculptor, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Monuments, statues, low reliefs.

John Flaxman II enjoyed a reputation as one of the finest English sculptors of his age. The second son of the plaster-cast maker John Flaxman, he spent much of his childhood in his father's studio, drawing and modelling in wax or clay. He received a thorough grounding in Greek and Latin, and exhibited his first artistic work (a copy after an Antique original) with the Free Society of Artists in ...


German, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1759, in Mainz; died c. 1825, in Munich.

Sculptor, engraver, lithographer.

Christian Koeck studied with Houdon in Paris. After that, he worked mainly as an illustrator. During a trip to Russia, he received commissions for two busts of Tsar ...


Stephen Addiss

(b Kyoto, 1658; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1735).

Japanese calligrapher and seal-carver. He was probably the most important Japanese master of Karayō (Chinese-style) calligraphy in the early 18th century. The son of a physician from Totomi Province (now in Shizuoka Prefect.), Kōtaku went to Edo as a youth to receive a Confucian education. He studied the Chinese classics with Sakai Zenken (d 1703) and also learnt a number of cultivated arts and skills such as poetry, painting, seal-carving, mathematics, astronomy and munitions. He also studied Karayō calligraphy with Kitajima Setsuzan (1636–97), who popularized in Japan the styles of Chinese calligraphers such as Wen Zhengming (see Wen family, §1) of the Yuan (1279–1368) and Ming (1368–1644) periods. Immigrant Ōbaku (Chin. Huangbo) Zen monks had brought this literati style, which became admired and practised partly because of the Tokugawa government’s strong support for Chinese scholarly and cultural attainments (see...


Flemish, 17th – 18th century, male.

Died after 1723, in Antwerp.


Flemish School.

In 1695 Michel de Penninghen was in the guild of Antwerp. He was also a bookseller.


Spanish, 18th century, male.

Born 1747, in Seville; died 12 November 1787, in Cádiz.

Painter, sculptor, copyist. History painting.

José de Rubira was the son of Andrés de Rubira. Although only 11 years old when his father died, he is not known to have studied under any other teacher. He is known in particular as an excellent copyist of Murillo....


Austrian, 18th century, male.

Born 1761, in Vienna; died 27 March 1797, in Vienna.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator.

Christian Sambach was the son and pupil of Franz Gaspard Sambach.

Poznan (Muz. Mielzynskich): Portrait of Philippo Buonarotti (miniature)

Vienna (Albertina Mus.): Crucifixion (drawing)...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Teng Shih-ju; Wanbai]

(b Huaining, Anhui Province, 1743; d 1805).

Chinese calligrapher and seal-carver. He is generally recognized as the founder of the stele studies (beixue) movement, which sought inspiration from the stelae of the Northern Wei period (ad 386–534; see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (a)). He is also considered the founder of the so-called Deng school of seal-carving. Deng spent most of his adult life as the guest of wealthy patrons, and supported himself at other times by selling his calligraphy and seals. His earliest and longest sojourn was with Mei Liu (zi Shijun) and lasted for eight years. Mei had an extensive collection of original bronze and stone objects and rubbings of stelae from the Qin to the Three Kingdoms period (221 bcad 280). Deng familiarized himself with these through painstaking imitation: he is said to have devoted six months to copying the earliest dictionary, the Dictionary of Words and Phrases...


Spanish, 18th century, male.

Born 1717, in Perpignan, to Spanish parents; died 1773, in Barcelona.

Painter, copyist. Religious subjects.

Francisco Tramulles was the son of a Catalan sculptor who went to Perpignan to work at the cathedral. He was the younger brother of Manuel Tramulles. Francisco first studied in Paris before going to Barcelona to continue his training under Veladomat the Elder. He then went to Madrid where he joined the Academia de Bellas Artes and copied the old masters for two years. He was made a member of the Madrid academy in ...