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Article

Abueva, Napoleon Veloso  

Filipino, 20th century, male.

Born 1930, in Bohol, Philippines.

Sculptor. Figures, historical subjects, religious subjects, allegory, myths.

Napoleon Veloso Abueva graduated in 1953 from the University of the Philippines College of Fine Arts (UPCFA), where he was mentored by the first National Artist for Sculpture, Guillermo Tolentino. He received another scholarship from the Fulbright/Smith–Mundt Foundation and in 1955 finished his master’s degree at the Cranbook Academy of Art in Michigan. He also studied at the University of Kansas and Harvard University. Regarded as pioneer of Philippine modern sculpture, Abueva also works in the figurative style and uses a variety of material, such as local hardwood, metal, marble, adobe, and cement. Among his early innovations are his ‘buoyant sculptures’, which he introduced in 1951. Many of his works are at the University of the Philippines campus in Quezon City, including the Crucifix of the Parish of the Holy Sacrifice (1957...

Article

Acudoǧu [Acudoǧlu], Ratip Aşir  

(b Istanbul, 1898; d Istanbul, 1957).

Turkish sculptor. After military service in World War I he went in 1918 to the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul, where he studied under the sculptor Ihsan Özsoy (1867–1944). With the help of his father he then went to Germany, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. From Munich he went to Paris, where, after failing to get lessons from Aristide Maillol, he worked independently, inspired by the work of Maillol and Emile-Antoine Bourdelle. After returning to Turkey in 1925 and passing an examination he was able to go back to Paris, where he entered the Académie Julian and worked under the sculptors Henri Bouchard (1875–1960) and Paul Landowski (1875–1961). He returned to Turkey in 1928 and worked first as an art teacher at Edirne Teachers' College and then at various middle schools in Istanbul until his death. His principal works included the monument in Menemen to ...

Article

Akhlaq, Zahoor ul-  

Marcella Nesom-Sirhandi

(b Delhi, India, Feb 4, 1941; d Lahore, Pakistan, Jan 18, 1999).

Pakistani painter, sculptor and printmaker. Educated in Pakistan and abroad, he has consciously and successfully synthesized Eastern and Western aesthetic traditions. In 1963, a year after graduating from the National College of Arts, Lahore, he joined the faculty as a lecturer in art, later becoming a professor and head of the Department of Fine Arts. His studies abroad have included post-graduate work in London (1966–7, 1968–9) and the United States (1987–9).

Like many of his colleagues, Zahoor was influenced by his mentor, Shakir ‛Ali, principal of the National College of Art from 1961 to 1975. Both artists were motivated by art history, philosophy and aesthetics. Zahoor’s non-figurative paintings of the 1960s evolved into tangible—though not always realistic—images addressing the dualities of space and time, East and West. Most of his triptychs and single canvases were conceived within a grid that provides a stabilizing structure for their compositions. This grid refers to Zahoor’s admiration for the American artist ...

Article

Al’tman [Altman], Natan  

V. Rakitin

(Isayevich)

(b Vinnitsa, Ukraine, Dec 22, 1889; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Dec 12, 1970).

Russian painter, graphic artist, sculptor and designer of Ukrainian birth. He studied painting at the School of Art in Odessa (1901–7) under Kiriak Kostandi (1852–1921), at the same time attending classes in sculpture. In 1908–9 he made a series of pointillist paintings. He visited Vienna and Munich in 1910 before going to Paris, where he worked at Vasil’yeva’s Free Russian Academy until 1912, producing paintings on Jewish themes and studying Cubism. In 1912 he went to St Petersburg, where he painted a number of Cubist portraits, for example of the poet Anna Akhmatova (1914; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). His Cubist work makes much use of faceting and transparent planes. From 1918 to 1921 he taught at the Department of Visual Arts (IZO) of Narkompros in Petrograd, but he was criticized for his attempts to identify Futurism with the art of the proletariat. Al’tman became well known as the designer of post-Revolutionary mass parades and monuments, for example the celebration of the first anniversary of the Revolution on ...

Article

Alonso, Mateo  

Spanish, 20th century, male.

Active in Argentina.

Born 11 August 1878, in Barcelona.

Sculptor.

Mateo Alonso is best known for his monumental Christ the Redeemer, which stands on the border of Chile and Argentina.

Buenos Aires (National Mus.)

Article

Angers, Henri  

Canadian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1870; died 1963.

Sculptor. Figures.

Henri Angers sculpted religious figures in an archaic regional style. Four of his sculptures were burnt when a fire destroyed the church of St-Amboise in Loretteville, Quebec.

Article

Anneel, Freddy d'  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1929, in Ostend.

Sculptor, painter. Religious subjects, nudes.

D'Anneel studied at the Brussels Academy. He became a teacher at the college of fine arts in the district of Uccle in Brussels.

Article

Arabshahi, Massoud  

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Tehran, 1934).

Iranian sculptor. Trained at the College of Decorative Arts, Tehran, he held his first solo exhibition at the Iran-India Center, Tehran in 1964. Inspired by Achaemenid and Assyrian art as well as by Babylonian carvings and inscriptions, Arabshahi has been associated with Hussein Zenderoudi, Parviz Tanavoli, and the Saqqakhana movement. His work has been shown in Iran, Europe, and the United States. Among his major commissions are sculptures and architectural reliefs for the Office for Industry and Mining, Tehran (...

Article

Arcabas  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1926, in Frémery (Moselle).

Painter, sculptor, decorative designer. Figure compositions, religious subjects, landscapes. Murals, church decoration, designs for mosaics and stained-glass windows, stage sets, stage costumes.

Arcabas studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris and also had a degree. He was a friend of the painter Dimitri Varbanesco. He exhibited in numerous towns in France and abroad. From ...

Article

Aricò, Gianni  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Aricò.

Sculptor, painter, glassmaker. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Gianni Aricò received a diploma in architecture from Venice University in 1971. In 1974 he set up his sculpture studio in the de-consecrated church of S Andrea della Zirada in Venice....

Article

Arnau y Mascort, Eusebio  

Spanish, 19th century, male.

Active at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century in Barcelona.

Born 1863, in Catalonia; died 1933.

Sculptor. Religious subjects. Groups, low reliefs.

Eusebio Arnau studied at the Barcelona School of Fine Art and then continued his studies in Rome, Florence and Paris. In ...

Article

Aublet, Albert  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born January 1851, in Paris; died 1938.

Painter, sculptor, illustrator. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes.

Orientalism.

Albert Aublet was a pupil of Claudius Jacquand and Gérôme. Very early on, he was drawn to the East, first visiting Constantinople (now Istanbul) in ...

Article

Bachlechner, Joseph  

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 20 October 1871, in Bruneck.

Sculptor (wood), painter. Religious subjects.

Joseph Bachlechner studied initially in Austria, and was active in Bosen (now Bolzano), Brixen (now Bressanone) and Hall. He developed his skills further during a visit to Rome before completing his studies at the academy in Munich in Eberle's studio....

Article

Ball, Louis  

French, 20th century, male.

Born in Paris.

Sculptor. Religious subjects.

Louis Ball exhibited in Paris at the Salon des Artistes Français from 1938, becoming a member of the society. He is known for his painting of The Virgin Assisted by the Holy Women

Article

Bara, Ali Hadi  

(b Tehran, Sept 19, 1906; d Istanbul, 1971).

Turkish sculptor . His family moved to Turkey when he was young. He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul (1923–7) and after graduating went to Paris on a bursary, where he studied sculpture under Henri Bouchard at the Académie Julian and then under Charles Despiau. On returning to Turkey (1930) he became an assistant teacher at the Fine Arts Academy. During the 1930s he worked on the Adana Monument (1935) and the monument to Atatürk (1937) at the military residence in Istanbul. With Zühtü Müridoğlu he also worked on the statue of the 16th-century Ottoman admiral Barbarossa in Beşiktaş, Istanbul, which was erected in 1946 on the 400th anniversary of Barbarossa’s death, and the monument of Atatürk and Ismet Inönü on Horseback in Zonguldak. He visited Paris again between 1949 and 1950 when he was inspired by non-figural sculpture, which thereafter took precedence in his work. After returning to Istanbul, he taught sculpture at the Fine Arts Academy with ...

Article

Bartalozzi, Carlo  

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1836, in Siena; died 1922.

Sculptor (wood), designer of ornamental architectural features. Religious furnishings.

Bartalozzi worked principally with the wood sculptor Nicodemo Ferri, chiefly on choir stalls for Siena Cathedral and a credenza for Marquis Ferdinando Pieri Nerli of Siena. He was also involved in carving the pianoforte presented by the City of Naples as a wedding gift to the King of Italy....

Article

Bazzaro, Leonardo  

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1853, in Milan; died 1937, in Milan.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, sculptor. Nudes, portraits, church interiors, interiors, genre scenes, local scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, seascapes, still-lifes.

Leonardo Bazzaro was the brother of the sculptor Ernesto Bazzaro, and a pupil of Giuseppe Bertini at the Accademia di Brera in Milan. He started out making architectural drawings. He won the Fumagalli Prize and the Giotto Institute Prize in 1878. He also won medals in Paris in 1889, and in Milan, Palermo, Antwerp and St Louis....

Article

Bell, Robert Anning  

British, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 April 1863, in London; died 27 November 1933, in London.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, illustrator. Figure compositions, religious subjects, mythological subjects, landscapes.

Robert Anning Bell was the pupil of Aimé Morot in Paris and of Sir George Frampton in London. He taught at University College, Liverpool (...

Article

Belloc, Jean Baptiste  

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Pamiers; died 1919.

Sculptor. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits.

Orientalism.

A pupil of Marius Mercié and Emile Thomas, Jean Baptiste Belloc exhibited with the Salon des Artistes Français from 1889 to 1913, receiving a commendation in 1889...

Article

Bellomi, Federico  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1928, in Colognola ai Colli, near Verona.

Painter, engraver, graphic designer, fresco artist, sculptor. Religious subjects. Designs for stained glass.

Bellomi studied initially at the Cignaroli Academy in Verona. After World War II, he worked as a coal miner in St-Étienne in France. However, he spent most of his life in Verona where, ...