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Article

Minard, Louis-François-Martial  

Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, June 7, 1801; d Ghent, Aug 5, 1875).

Belgian architect and collector. The son of a French immigrant, he trained in architecture at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt and between 1817 and 1835 obtained several prizes but competed without success for the Prix de Rome at Amsterdam in 1827. Appointed a professor at the academy of The Hague in 1829, he returned to Ghent after the Belgian Revolution (1830) and there became a most successful and wealthy architect–builder and was elected a town councillor. Minard’s architectural works, mostly in eastern Flanders, include the building or restoration of churches, for example at Melle (1837–9), Adegem (1842–4), Burst (1852–5), Ertvelde (1854) and Wetteren (1865), private houses in Ghent, country houses and châteaux (Olsene (1854), Deurle (destr.), Vosselare (destr.), Nazareth-Scheldevelde, Lovendegem, Melle, Lochristi, Wetteren (destr.), Wondelgem, Drongen, Erpe), school and industrial buildings and funeral monuments. His first works, such as the Hôtel Godefroy (...

Article

Palagi, (Filippo) Pelagio  

Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...

Article

Pitt, Thomas, 1st Baron Camelford  

Joanna Vernon

(b ?London, March 3, 1737; d Pisa, Jan 19, 1793).

English architect and patron. He was educated at Cambridge University, where he became friendly with the medievalists William Cole (1714–82) and Thomas Gray (1716–71). He travelled to Spain and Portugal in 1760 and there compiled a journal that gave the first descriptions in English of a large number of Iberian Gothic antiquities. Circulated privately, the manuscript contributed to the scholarship of English antiquaries. Pitt’s work as a Gothic Revivalist includes decoration (1762–4) at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, nr London, for Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford; refurbishment (1764–8) at Carlisle and Norwich cathedrals; and alterations (1783) at Holywell House, St Albans, Herts. Pitt’s uncle, Charles Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle and President of the Society of Antiquaries, encouraged his nephew’s Gothic interests, and family connections provided Pitt’s most important commissions. Between 1765 and 1777 Pitt built garden buildings, including the Corinthian arch for his cousins, the Grenvilles, at Stowe, Bucks, and adapted an Adam design for the south front of the house. Pitt’s career illustrates the importance of the tradition of the amateur architect among leading 18th-century families and their interest in new stylistic possibilities....

Article

Poniatowski, Prince Stanisław  

Andrzej Rottermund

(b Warsaw, Feb 23, 1754; d Florence, Feb 13, 1833).

Polish patron and collector, nephew of Stanisław II Augustus Poniatowski. He studied at the Military Academy in Warsaw from 1766 to 1769. He travelled widely in Europe, visiting Vienna (1770), England (1771–2), studying at Cambridge for eight months, and France, Switzerland and Italy between 1773 and 1775. These trips, particularly his stay in England, influenced his taste for art and collecting. He was the chosen successor to his paternal uncle, from whom he received vast landed estates, mainly in the Ukraine and Lithuania but also in and around Warsaw. Poniatowski was known for introducing efficient management methods into his estates, and he was firmly opposed to serfdom. He furnished his three Polish residences during the 1770s and 1780s. His seat in Warsaw, Ustronie (destr. 1808), was designed for him by Stanisław Zawadzki (1743–1806). It combined the functions of a country mansion with those of a typical town palace. Its most characteristic feature was the irregularity of the design (plans and engraved views in Warsaw, N. Mus.). Zawadzki also designed the palace (...

Article

Ruskin, John  

Dinah Birch

(b London, Feb 8, 1819; d Brantwood, Cumbria, Jan 20, 1900).

English writer, draughtsman, painter and collector. He was one of the most influential voices in the art world of the 19th century. His early writings, eloquent in their advocation of J(oseph) M(allord) W(illiam) Turner and Pre-Raphaelitism and their enthusiasm for medieval Gothic, had a major impact on contemporary views of painting and architecture. His later and more controversial works focused attention on the relation between art and politics and were bitter in their condemnation of what he saw as the mechanistic materialism of his age.

Ruskin was the only child of prosperous Scottish parents living in London: his father was a wine merchant, his mother a spirited Evangelical devoted to her husband and son. Ruskin had a sequestered but happy childhood. He became an accomplished draughtsman (taught by Copley Fielding and James Duffield Harding) and acquired, through engravings encountered in Samuel Rogers’s poem Italy (1830), an early enthusiasm for Turner’s art. He was also an eager student of natural science, particularly geology. He travelled with his parents, seeing Venice for the first time in ...

Article

Wilkins, William  

R. Windsor Liscombe

(b Norwich, Aug 31, 1778; d Cambridge, Aug 31, 1839).

English architect, writer and collector . A ‘profound knowledge of the principles both of Grecian and Gothic architecture’ generated the career of Wilkins, who was also remembered as ‘a most amiable and honourable man’. He promoted the archaeological Greek Revival in Britain and a Tudor Gothic style. More intellectual than imaginative, his architecture was distinguished by a deft and disciplined manipulation of select historical motifs, a refined sense of scale and intelligent planning, outmoded by the time of his death. Besides his architecture and extensive antiquarian writings, Wilkins assembled an eclectic art collection and owned, or had a financial interest in, several theatres in East Anglia.

The theatres and Wilkins’s architectural bent were inherited from his father, a Norwich architect also called William Wilkins (1751–1815), who assisted Humphry Repton from 1785 to 1796 and established a successful domestic practice, mainly in the Gothick style. His eldest son was educated at Norwich School, then at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, from which he graduated Sixth Wrangler in ...