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Article

Adler, (Johann Heinrich) Friedrich  

(b Berlin, Oct 15, 1827; d Berlin, Sept 15, 1908).

German architect, archaeologist and writer. He was one of the leading figures of Berlin’s architectural establishment in the latter half of the 19th century. On completion of his studies in 1852, he was given the prestigious post of Bauleiter at the Neues Museum in Berlin, designed by Friedrich August Stüler. He subsequently became a lecturer and in 1861 a professor of architectural history at the Bauakademie in Berlin. Many of his church buildings used medieval motifs and elements, for example the Christuskirche (1862–8) in Berlin and the Elisabethkirche (1869–72) in Wilhelmshafen. He followed Karl Bötticher in his attempts to merge medieval and classical elements, best illustrated in his design for the Thomaskirche (competition 1862; built 1865–70), Berlin. There, Adler used Gothic structural devices embellished with rich Renaissance detail, a tendency that was also present in many of the entries for the Berlin Cathedral competition (...

Article

Aspriati, Kleoniki  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, female.

Active in Athens.

Painter.

Kleoniki Aspriati executed mostly portraits and worked in Athens. A pupil of Raphael Collin, Paul Leroy and Luc Olivier-Merson, she received honourable mention at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.

Article

Bornozi, Diana  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, female.

Born in Vienna, to Greek parents.

Painter. Portraits, birds.

Diana Bornozi exhibited portraits and pictures of birds in Paris at the Salon de la Société des Beaux-Arts 1914 and 1935.

Article

Brounzos, A.  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 19th century, in Lemnos; died c. 1920.

Painter. Genre scenes.

Brounzos was a pupil of Cabanel. He exhibited at the Paris Exposition Universelle in 1889 (receiving a bronze medal) and in 1900.

Article

Chimonas, Nicolas  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active also active in Russia.

Born between 1865 and 1866, in Eupatoria (Crimea); died 1929, in Athens.

Painter. Landscapes.

Nicolas Chimonas studied with Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi at the academy of fine arts in St Petersburg from 1890 to 1894 and later taught there (...

Article

Dovletoglu, Kosmas  

Greek, 20th century, male.

Born 13 September 1920.

Sculptor.

Symbolism.

Kosmas took classes at the school of fine art in Athens, from which he graduated in 1945, obtained a grant to complete his training in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1952 to 1954...

Article

Farmakovsky, Boris  

V. Ya. Petrukhin

(Vladimirovich)

(b Vyatka, Feb 12, 1870; d Pargolovo, Leningrad [now St Petersburg] province, July 29, 1928).

Russian archaeologist and art historian. He graduated from the historical philology department at Novorossiysk University in 1892 and then visited museums and studied the results of excavations in Greece, Italy, France and Turkey (1894–7). From 1896 to 1900 he was academic secretary of the Russian Archaeological Institute in Istanbul. From 1901 to 1918 he was a member of the Archaeological Commission in St Petersburg (Petrograd from 1914) and academic secretary of the Russian Archaeological Society (1906–19). He became a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1914 and a professor at Petrograd University in 1919. In 1921 he was appointed academic secretary of the State Academy for the History of Material Culture and curator of the State Hermitage Museum in 1924. He began independent excavations of the necropolis at Ol’viya and on Berezan’ Island in 1896 and followed this with a systematic study of Ol’viya in ...

Article

Fokas, Odysseus  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1865, in Kalasteri; died 1946, in Athens.

Painter. Landscapes.

Odysseus Fokas went to Paris and Aix-en-Provence to complete his training.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki)

Article

Furtwängler, (Johann) Adolf  

Thomas Braun

(Michael)

(b Freiburg im Breisgau, June 30, 1854; d Athens, Oct 10, 1907).

German archaeologist. His pioneering work transformed the study of Greek art from dependence on literary sources into a discipline based on a comprehensive knowledge of artefacts. Furtwängler was descended from a Black Forest family of peasants, wood-carvers and clockmakers; he attended Freiburg school, where his father was headmaster, studied Classics at Freiburg and Leipzig, and Classical archaeology under Heinrich Brunn (1822–94), the first professor of the subject at Munich. At the newly established Deutsches Archäologisches Institut at Rome (1877–8), he acquired mastery of the vast quantity of Greco-Roman sculpture in Italian collections. In Greece (1878–9) he studied original Greek artefacts, plentifully unearthed in recent excavations. He and Georg Loeschke (1852–1915) classified and published the pottery excavated by Heinrich Schliemann at Mycenae. Furtwängler’s work on 14,150 small bronzes from Olympia culminated in his authoritative fourth volume of the German excavation reports (1890...

Article

Gelbert, Adolphos  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1866, in Athens.

Painter, architect.

Adolphos Gelbert settled in Paris in 1900 and trained at the École des Beaux-Arts.

Article

Giallina, Angelos  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 5 March 1857, on Corfu; died 1939.

Painter, watercolourist. Genre scenes, landscapes.

Angelos Giallina lived in Venice when very young, then spent time in Paris, London, Naples as well as in Corfu and Athens.

Article

Gunaropulos, George  

Greek, 20th century, male.

Active also active in France.

Born 1889 or 1890, in Sozopol, Bulgaria; died 1977, in Athens.

Painter. Figure compositions, figures, nudes, landscapes. Murals.

Symbolism.

A pupil of Spiros Vikatos, George Roilos and George Jacobides at the Athens school of fine arts, George Gunaropulos received a government grant to study in Paris in ...

Article

Osman Hamdi  

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman HamdiHamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...

Article

Hatzis, Vassilios  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1870, in Kastoria; died 1915, in Athens.

Painter. Seascapes.

A student of Constantin Volonakis at the school of fine art in Athens, Vassilios Hatzis painted mainly seascapes noted for their skilful execution and lighting effects.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki)

Athens (Polemikó Mouseío)...

Article

Jakobides, Georg  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 11 January 1853, in Mitilíni, Lesbos; died 1932, in Athens.

Painter. History painting, mythological subjects, genre scenes.

A pupil of Nikiforos Lytras at the Athens academy of fine art and of Gabriel von Max and Ludwig von Löfftz at the Munich academy, Georg Jakobides settled in Munich. He painted mainly mythological subjects and compositions with children....

Article

Katzourakis, Kyriakos  

Greek, 20th century, male.

Born 1944, in Athens.

Painter.

Nouvelle Figuration.

Kyriakos Katzourakis studied at the school of fine arts in Athens from 1963 to 1968. His paintings are realist in style and use a typeset layout reminiscent of journalistic discourse, juxtaposing images, the aim being to accuse and seek revindication. He has taken part in collective exhibitions and had his first solo exhibition in Athens in ...

Article

Kindynis, Anna  

Greek, 20th century, female.

Active in France from 1945.

Born 19 March 1914.

Painter.

Anna Kindynis lived in Paris from 1945 and started to exhibit there in 1947. Her painting style is realist with overtones of pathos.

Article

Krinos, Pierre A.  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born in Siros.

Sculptor.

Pierre A. Krinos was a student of Lazaros Sochos. He took part in the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, obtaining a commendation.

Article

Lambessis, P.  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born in Salamina.

Painter. Portraits, landscapes.

P. Lambessis studied under Lindenchsmith. He was awarded a commendation at the 1900 Exposition Universelle, Paris.

Article

Lembessis, Polychronis  

Greek, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1849, in Salamina; died 1913, in Athens.

Painter. Genre scenes, landscapes.

Polychronis Lembessis studied at the fine arts school in Athens, and at the fine arts academy in Munich.

Athens (Ethnikí Pinakothíki)