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Balestra, Antonio  

Felicia Lewandowski

(b Verona, Aug 12, 1666; d Verona, April 21, 1740).

Italian painter and printmaker. His altarpieces and history paintings, which unite late Baroque classicism with Venetian colour, brought new life to north Italian painting. The son of Lucia Boschetti and Francesco Balestra, a wealthy merchant, he studied literature, rhetoric and the humanities, but, after lessons in drawing and perspective with Giovanni Zeffis (d 1688) and one Monsignor Bianchini (1646–1724), he moved to Venice in 1687 and trained with Antonio Bellucci. In 1691 he transferred to Rome, where he studied with Carlo Maratti, whose art continued a classical tradition that can be traced back to Raphael, and where he also absorbed the work of Annibale Carracci and Domenichino. In 1694 Balestra’s large drawing of the Fall of the Giants (Rome, Gal. Accad. N. S Luca) won first prize in a competition at the Accademia di S Luca. In 1695 he returned to Verona, where he was acclaimed as the chief exponent in the Veneto of Maratti’s late Baroque classicism. His pictures of this period were mainly small religious works, such as the ...


Bergmüller [Bergmiller], Johann Georg  

Gode Krämer

(b Türkheim, bapt April 15, 1688; d Augsburg, April 2, 1762).

German painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. His frescoes and altarpieces and his teaching established him as the dominant figure in the art life of Augsburg in the earlier 18th century. He came from a family of well-known Swabian sculptors, cabinetmakers and painters, with whom he probably initially trained. The Bavarian Duke Maximilian Philip paid for him to study (1702–8) with the Munich court painter Johann Andreas Wolff, after which he was summoned by the Elector of the Palatinate to decorate the court church of St Hubertus in Düsseldorf (1708–9; destr.). In 1710 or 1712 Bergmüller frescoed the church of Kreuzpullach, near Wolfratshausen. In his request for permission to marry and for mastership in Augsburg in 1712, he referred to an otherwise undocumented stay in the Netherlands. He settled permanently in the Imperial Free City in 1713 and attended its Reichstädtische Kunstakademie from 1715. From this time he rose to become the most influential painter and teacher in Augsburg, with apprentices coming from beyond the city, including ...


Brinckmann, Philipp Hieronymus  

Gode Krämer

(b Speyer, 1709; bur; Mannheim, Dec 21, 1760).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. Trained by Johann Georg Dathan (1703–c. 1748) in Speyer, he was a court painter in Mannheim from 1733 until his death, from 1755 gallery director and from 1757 a privy councillor. Of the religious works that, as a court painter, he was obliged to produce, the only ones that survive are frescoes (spandrel paintings) depicting the Four Quarters of the World (after 1748; Mannheim, former Jesuit church of SS Ignaz und Franz Xavier) and ceiling paintings in Electress Elizabeth Augusta’s library in Schloss Mannheim.

Brinckmann’s landscapes show two opposing trends. On the one hand, there are small, detailed picturesque landscapes in courtly or rural settings with suitable accessories, often with many figures. According to the terms of his contract, he had to produce two such paintings each year; typical examples are the Court Gardens at Mannheim (1745) and Wolfbrunnens near Heidelberg...


García Hidalgo, José  

Ismael Gutiérrez Pastor

(b Villena, Alicante, c. 1645; d Madrid, June 28, 1717).

Spanish painter, engraver and writer. He began his training in Murcia with Nicolás de Villacis (c. 1618–94) and Mateo Gilarte (c. 1620–after 1680), who both worked in a naturalist and tenebrist style. He travelled to Rome in the 1660s and came into contact with the Italian Baroque, especially the work of Pietro da Cortona and Carlo Maratti. On his return he was first in Valencia, where the work of Jerónimo Jacinto Espinosa became a strong influence. Towards 1674 he established himself in Madrid, where he entered the circle of Juan Carreño de Miranda.

García Hidalgo’s numerous paintings were frequently signed, and he painted a good many for the Augustinian Order in Madrid, Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Santiago de Compostela and Sigüenza (e.g the Vision of St Augustine, 1680; Sigüenza Cathedral), and for the Carmelite Order in Alba de Tormes, Peñaranda de Bracamonte and Segovia (e.g. the ...


Hooghe, Romeyn de  

M. J. C. Otten

(bapt Amsterdam, Sept 10, 1645; bur Haarlem, June 15, 1708).

Dutch etcher, draughtsman, painter, sculptor, medallist and writer. He is best known for his political caricatures of Louis XIV of France and for his prints glorifying William III, Stadholder of the Netherlands and King of England. De Hooghe is an important representative of the late Dutch Baroque. His style is characterized by strong contrasts of lights and darks and an expressive composition. In his prints he combined contemporary personalities with allegorical figures. His prints are numerous, but few of his drawings survive and his paintings are rarer still. De Hooghe’s first commission for an etching probably came from Constantijn Huygens the elder, secretary to William III; this was Zeestraet (1667; Hollstein, no. 287). In 1668 de Hooghe was in Paris, where he produced some book illustrations, but he returned to Amsterdam, where from 1670 to 1691 he illustrated the annual newsheet Hollandsche Mercurius. He regularly produced such political prints as ...


Maratti [Maratta], Carlo  

Manuela B. Mena Marqués

(b Camerano, May 18, 1625; d Rome, Dec 15, 1713).

Italian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He was the last major Italian artist of the classical tradition that had originated with Raphael, and his pre-eminence among the artists of his time marks the triumph of classicism. Nonetheless his art unites the virtues of disegno and colore, and he created a grandiose and decorative style that satisfied the demands of the Church. At the same time his late works had a grace and refinement that anticipated the development of the Rococo and Neo-classicism.

Carlo Maratti was the son of the Dalmatian Tommaso Maratti and Faustina Masini, and his half-brother Bernabeo Francioni was also a painter. His first biographer, Bellori, described how as a boy Maratti made copies of the coloured engravings of saints that were sold in Camerano, and how Bernabeo showed some of these copies to Andrea Camassei, who advised that Maratti should be brought to Rome. He moved to Rome in ...


Mattioli, Lodovico  

Annamaria Negro Spina

(b Crevalcore, Jan 2, 1662; d Bologna, Nov 20, 1747).

Italian painter and engraver. He was a pupil of Giuseppe Maria Crespi and was active in Bologna (where he painted a landscape fresco for the former orphanage of S Bartolomeo) and in Parma, Modena and Ferrara. Buscaroli attributed to him the Landscape with Ploughmen and the Landscape with Travellers (both Bologna, Leoni priv. col.; for illustrations, see Buscaroli). Mattioli’s engravings, based on his own designs or those by other artists, among them Guido Reni, include landscapes, allegorical scenes, portraits, book illustrations and festival decorations. Most famous are his illustrations for the republication of Giulio Cesare Croce’s Bertoldo e Bertoldino (Bologna, 1736) after an original set of etchings by Crespi. Other reproductive prints by Mattioli include the Woman of Samaria after Annibale Carracci, St Jerome and the Agave after Crespi (for illustrations, see Merriman), the Immaculate Conception after Donato Creti and numerous landscapes after Guercino.

Bolaffi R. Buscaroli: Pittura di paesaggio in Italia...


Milani, Aureliano  

Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, 1675; d Bologna, 1749).

Italian painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was distantly related to the Carracci family and zealous to revive their style for his generation of Bolognese artists. As a young artist, trained briefly by his uncle Giulio Cesare Milani and then by Lorenzo Pasinelli and Cesare Gennari (1637–88), he undertook a long and diligent study of the celebrated fresco cycles by the Carracci in the Palazzo Magnani and the Palazzo Fava in Bologna. He was given free access to the Fava palace, and financial assistance, by Count Alessandro Fava. Milani also made copies, in both drawing and painting, of major pictures by the Carracci in Bologna and emulated the vigorous rhythmic articulation of musculature and contour that they used to convey the powerful energy of the male figure in movement.

Initially Milani’s reputation was established in Bologna with altarpieces such as the Martyrdom of St Stephen (c. 1715; destr., see Roli, ...


Neunhertz, Jerzy [Georg] Wilhelm  

Andrew Stoga

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], bapt May 11, 1689; d Prague, May 24, 1749).

Silesian painter, engraver and draughtsman. A member of a family of painters from Breslau, in 1724 he appeared in Prague, where he entered the painters’ guild. Neunhertz’s first fresco was Scenes from the Life of Christ (1725–30) for the Benedictine nuns’ abbey church in Lubomierz, Silesia. His fresco decoration of the cupola of the Cistercian abbey church in Ląd dates from 1731. In 1733–5 he produced his largest piece of work Scenes from the Lives of the Virgin and of Christ for the Cistercians, in Krzeszów parish church: a huge cycle of frescoes in a bold, illusionistic style. In 1736 Neunhertz completed the frescoes of the Augustinian monastery library in Żagań. He subsequently worked in Bolesławiec and Krzeszów, returning to Prague in 1738. In 1743–4 he completed paintings in the Premonstratensian church of the Assumption in Strahov, and in 1745 he decorated the ceiling of the Sułkowski Palace (destr. ...


Sole, Giovanni Gioseffo dal  

Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, Dec 10, 1654; d Bologna, July 22, 1719).

Italian painter and engraver. His father was Giovanni Antonio Maria dal Sole (1606–84), a landscape painter who had been taught by Francesco Albani. Giovanni Gioseffo began his training with Domenico Canuti, a master of grand-scale fresco decoration, and—after Canuti was called to Rome in 1672—entered the studio of Lorenzo Pasinelli. Pasinelli’s art united the traditions of Bolognese classicism with a tendency towards Venetian painterliness and rich colour, and through it dal Sole absorbed the work of Guido Reni and of Reni’s most gifted pupil, Simone Cantarini. Dal Sole soon became his master’s favourite and executed two fine engravings after Pasinelli’s compositions, the most important of which was the print he made of Mars Receiving Weapons from Jupiter, Juno and Athena, a ceiling painting made for Gen. Raimondi Montecuccoli’s palace in Vienna and now known only through the engraved version. Through his friendship with Conte Alessandro Fava (recorded on a drawing by dal Sole of a ...


Terwesten, Augustinus  

Marijn Schapelhouman


(b ?The Hague, May 4, 1649; d Berlin, Jan 21, 1711).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and etcher. His first teacher was Nicolaas Wieling (before 1640–1678), according to Houbraken. After Wieling was appointed court painter to Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg, Terwesten became a pupil of Willem Doudijns (1630–97). Subsequently Terwesten travelled through Germany and Italy. Houbraken’s claim that Terwesten spent three years in Rome is confirmed by signed drawings of Roman subjects dated 1675, 1676 and 1677 (Amsterdam, Rijksmus., and Leiden, Rijksuniv., Prentenkab.). In Rome he joined the Schildersbent, the northern painters’ confraternity, who gave him the bent-name ‘Patrijs’. After a stay in Venice, Terwesten returned to The Hague via France and England. In 1682, together with Doudijns, Theodorus van der Schuer (1628–1707), Daniel Mijtens and Robert Duval, he was a co-founder of the Hague Academie, which offered artists the opportunity to draw from live models on some evenings each week.

Among his contemporaries Terwesten enjoyed a prominent reputation as a painter of ceiling and wall pieces. In ...


Troger, Paul  

Eckhart Knab

(bapt Zell unter Welsberg, South Tyrol [now Monguelfo, Italy], Oct 30, 1698; d Vienna, July 20, 1762).

Austrian painter, draughtsman and printmaker. Through his fresco-work and his draughtsmanship, which adapt a vast range of Italian influences, as well as his teaching, he is one of the foremost figures of 18th-century Austrian art.

He was the son of a village tailor and sexton and was first taught by Matthias Durchner (1675–1741), a local painter. When young he entered the service of Freiherr Franz Alphons von Firmian, who recommended him to Giuseppe Alberti (1640–1716), a Venetian-trained painter in Cavalese, and, after Alberti’s death in 1716, to a Count Giovanelli in Venice. Through the latter Troger studied with Silvestro Maniago (1670–1734), Giovanni Battista Piazzetta and his circle and Federico Bencovich, absorbing their feeling for chiaroscuro realism. But the contemporary Venetian taste for lighter colours, shown by Sebastiano Ricci, Antonio Pellegrini, Giovanni Battista Pittoni and in particular by Gaspare Diziani (1689–1767), also influenced him. Diziani’s smoothly propelled draughtsmanship was close to Troger’s youthful style. Troger also came into occasional contact with Giambattista Tiepolo, who combined both trends, as a draughtsman and etcher of mythological capriccios and landscapes. The more sombre influences show in Troger’s first independent altarpiece, the ...


Vieira Lusitano [Vieira de Matos], Francisco  

Zilah Quezado Deckker

(b Lisbon, Oct 4, 1699; d Lisbon, Aug 13, 1783).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was the leading painter of the 18th century in Portugal. His mature work is in the 17th-century Italian late Baroque manner, which he had absorbed during his studies in Rome and transmitted into the late 18th century in Portugal. He readily found patronage from John V, who was developing closer cultural and political links with Rome and profiting from the newly discovered Brazilian gold.

Vieira Lusitano first went to Rome in 1712 as the protégé of Rodrigo Aires de Sá e Meneses, Marquês de Fontes e Abrantes, the Portuguese Ambassador Extraordinary to the Holy See. He studied under Benedetto Luti (1666–1724), a follower of Carlo Maratti, and the more Rococo Francesco Trevisani. It was in Rome that he acquired his nickname ‘Lusitano’. After his return to Lisbon in 1719, he became a member of the Irmandade de S Lucas (Brotherhood of St Luke) and received commissions from ...


Vien, Joseph-Marie, Comte  

Joshua Drapkin

(b Montpellier, June 18, 1716; d Paris, March 27, 1809).

French painter, draughtsman and engraver. He was one of the earliest French painters to work in the Neo-classical style, and although his own work veered uncertainly between that style and the Baroque, Vien was a decisive influence on some of the foremost artists of the heroic phase of Neo-classicism, notably Jacques-Louis David, Jean-François-Pierre Peyron, Joseph-Benoît Suvée and Jean-Baptiste Regnault, all of whom he taught. Both his wife, Marie-Thérèse Reboul (1738–1805), and Joseph-Marie Vien fils (1762–1848) were artists: Marie-Thérèse exhibited at the Salon in 1757–67; Joseph-Marie fils earned his living as a portrait painter and engraver.

After spending his youth in various forms of employment, including work as a painter of faience and as an assistant to the artist Jacques Giral, Vien travelled to Paris and entered the studio of Charles-Joseph Natoire in 1740. Three years later he won the Prix de Rome and in 1744 went to the Académie de France in Rome. His participation in the energetic reappraisal of form, technique and purpose taking place in French art from the mid-1740s onwards is well demonstrated by paintings executed before and during his time in Italy. These include the ...