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Derain, André  

Jane Lee

(b Chatou, nr Paris, June 17, 1880; d Garches, Sept 8, 1954).

French painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer and collector. He was a leading exponent of Fauvism. In early 1908 he destroyed most of his work to concentrate on tightly constructed landscape paintings, which were a subtle investigation of the work of Cézanne. After World War I his work became more classical, influenced by the work of such artists as Camille Corot. In his sculpture he drew upon his knowledge and collection of non-Western art.

Derain abandoned his engineering studies in 1898 to become a painter and attended the Académie Carrière. He also sketched in the Musée du Louvre and painted on the banks of the Seine. On a visit to the Louvre in 1899 he met the painter Georges Florentin Linaret (1878–1905), who had been his companion at school, and who was copying Uccello in an extraordinary manner; he was studying under Gustave Moreau and later introduced Derain to a fellow pupil, Henri Matisse. Derain’s painting was already influenced by the work of Cézanne, and in ...


Dismorr, Jessica  

Richard Cork

(b Gravesend, Kent, 1885; d London, Aug 29, 1939).

English painter and illustrator. She studied at the Slade School, London, in 1902–3, then trained under Max Bohm at Etaples and in 1910–13 at La Palette, Paris, under Jean Metzinger, John Duncan Fergusson and Dunoyer de Segonzac. As a result she developed a Fauvist style using rich impastos. She contributed several brusquely simplified illustrations to Rhythm magazine during 1911 and exhibited Fauvist canvases at the Allied Artists’ Association in 1912 and 1913. She exhibited with S. J. Peploe and Fergusson at the Stafford Gallery in 1912, but an encounter with Wyndham Lewis the following year led to a dramatic change in her work. By spring 1914 she had become an enthusiastic member of the Rebel Art Centre, and her name appeared on the list of signatures at the end of the Vorticist manifesto in the first issue of Blast magazine (1914).

Little survives of Dismorr’s Vorticist work, but her illustrations in ...


Dongen, Kees van for Cornelis Théodore Marie  

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active from 1900 and from 1929 naturalised in France.

Born 26 January 1877, in Delfshaven, near Rotterdam; died 28 May 1968, in Monaco.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures, flowers.


Kees van Dongen’s father first placed him in a school of industrial design and decorative art in Rotterdam. Later, in 1894–1895, he became a pupil of J. Striening and J.G. Heyberg at the Academy of Fine Arts in Rotterdam. His first paintings of this period were signed C. van Dongen, and from 1896 he published drawings, often of street women, in local newspapers, notably the Rotterdamsche Nieuwsblad where they created a scandal. After a trip to New York in July 1897, he spent time in Paris, living with Siebe Ten Cate, who introduced him to the art dealers Le Barc de Bouteville and ‘le père Soulier’. However, lack of resources obliged him to resort to menial work as a porter at Les Halles, a furniture mover, a portrait painter on the terraces of cafes, and a professional wrestler. In March ...


Dufy, Raoul  

Dora Pérez-Tibi

(b Le Havre, June 3, 1877; d Forcalquier, Basses-Alpes, March 23, 1953).

French painter, printmaker and decorative artist. From the age of 14 he was employed as a book-keeper, but at the same time he developed his innate gift for drawing at evening classes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Le Havre,given by the Neo-classical painter Charles Lhuillier (?1824–98). He discovered the work of Eugène Boudin, Poussin and Delacroix, whose Justice of Trajan (1840; Rouen, Mus. B.-A.) was ‘a revelation and certainly one of the most violent impressions’ of his life (Lassaigne, Eng. trans., p. 16). In 1900, with a grant from Le Havre, he joined his friend Othon Friesz in Paris and enrolled at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in the studio of Léon Bonnat. At the Musée du Louvre he studied the art of Claude Lorrain, to whom he painted several Homages between 1927 and 1947 (e.g. 1927; Nice, Mus. Masséna). His encounter with works by van Gogh at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune and with Impressionism at Durand-Ruel is reflected in such early works as ...


Grus, Jaroslav  

Czech, 20th century, male.

Born 1891, in Pardubice.

Painter, illustrator, engraver.

Jaroslav Grus studied with H. Schwaigra at the academy of arts in Prague. A figurative painter influenced by the Fauvist and Expressionist movements in Central Europe, he also executed engravings and illustrated books. He participated in numerous exhibitions of Czech painting....


Matisse, Henri (Emile Benoît)  

French, 19th–20th century, male.

Born 31 December 1869, in Le Cateau-Cambrésis (Nord); died 3 November 1954, in Nice.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver, lithographer, sculptor, illustrator, theorist. Artists’ books.


Henri Matisse was born to parents who owned a grocery shop in Bohain, a small town in northern France. After his schooling in St Quentin, he began his law studies in Paris in 1887–1888. In 1889, he returned to St Quentin, where he worked as a clerk in a law firm but was soon taken ill. It was during his lengthy convalescence that he decided to turn to painting. In 1891, he returned to Paris and enrolled at the Académie Julian, where he studied under the painter William Bouguereau. In 1893, Matisse left the Académie and joined Albert Marquet, Georges Rouault, Charles Camoin, and Henri Manguin at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied with Gustave Moreau. From 1895, he lived at 19 Quai St Michel in Paris, an address that he kept for the rest of his life....


Puy, Jean  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 8 November 1876, in Roanne; died 6 March 1960, in Roanne.

Painter, draughtsman, pastellist, illustrator. Nudes, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures, still-lifes.


Jean Puy came from a family of industrialists. He obtained his baccalauréat in Litterature and Philosophy and began his foundation studies in architectural design at the École des Beaux-Arts in Lyons in 1895 and 1896. However, the teaching of the academic portraitist, Tony Tollet, inspired him to paint and, in 1898, he decided to go to Paris to study at the Academie Julian with Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. Later he turned to Eugène Carrière, in whose studio he became acquainted with other painters, including Henri Matisse, André Derain, Charles Camoin and Henri Manguin. Puy was mobilised in 1915 and transferred to a camouflage unit where he again met Camoin, as well as Villon and Dunoyer de Segonzac. He spent the interwar years in Paris, but in 1939 to 1940, fearing the bombing of the capital, he moved back to Roanne. In 1939, he decorated the hall of honour at the Lycée du Parc in Lyons with a fresco ...


Ramah, Henri  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in St Joost-ten-Node; died 1947, in Brussels.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, lithographer, illustrator. Figures, portraits, landscapes.

Brabant Fauvism.

Ramah was a student at the school of fine art in St Joost-ten-Node, and then at the academy in Brussels. He was a member of ...


Tytgat, Edgard  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 28 April 1879, in Brussels; died January 1957, in Brussels.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver, illustrator. Scenes with figures, mythological subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, interiors with figures, landscapes. Designs for tapestries.

Brabant Fauvism.

Tytgat worked in his father's lithographic studio as a child. In 1897, he moved on to attend evening classes at the academy in Brussels. He spent World War I in London, returning afterwards to settle in Woluwe-St-Lambert in 1924. He was associated generally with the informal grouping of the Brabant Fauves....