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Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953, in Paris.

Sculptor, draughtsman.

Symbolism.

Jean Anguera is the grandson of the sculptor Pablo Gargallo. He graduated in architecture in 1978 (UP2) in Paris. He also attended lectures by César Baldaccini at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris (...

Article

Frederick N. Bohrer

Style of the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th, inspired by Assyrian artefacts of the 9th to 7th centuries bc. These were first brought to public attention through the excavations by Paul-Emile Botta (1802–70) at Khorsabad and Austen Henry Layard at Nimrud in the 1840s. By 1847 both the Louvre in Paris and the British Museum in London had begun to display these objects, the size and popularity of which were such that the Louvre created a separate Musée des Antiquités Orientales, while the British Museum opened its separate Nineveh Gallery in 1853. The same popularity, fuelled by Layard’s best-selling Nineveh and its Remains (London, 1849) and Botta’s elaborate Monument de Ninive (Paris, 1849–50), led to further explorations elsewhere in Mesopotamia.

Assyrian revivalism first appeared in England rather than France, which was then in political turmoil. The earliest forms of emulation can be found in the decorative arts, such as the ‘Assyrian style’ jewellery that was produced in England from as early as ...

Article

Richard Cork

[Laurence]

(b Manchester, Jan 17, 1873; d Paris, Sept 21, 1931).

English painter, sculptor and draughtsman. He studied singing and music in Berlin and Paris. At first he earned his living by establishing himself as a singing teacher in Liverpool and London. By July 1913, when he exhibited in the Allied Artists’ Association in London, he was devoting an increasing amount of his energies to painting. His early work was Fauvist in affiliation, reflecting perhaps the teaching he had received at La Palette in Paris. Contact with Wyndham Lewis and the Vorticists led him to pursue a more abstract path. In the spring of 1914 he joined the Rebel Art Centre with Wyndham Lewis and other artists who appeared in Blast magazine later that year.

Little is known about the development of Atkinson’s work at this crucial stage in his career. His signature was on the manifesto in the first issue of Blast, but his work was not reproduced in the magazine; his continuing involvement with other forms of art was demonstrated when his book of poems, ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA.

Born 15 March 1883, in Stuttgart; died 29 May 1972, in New York.

Painter, sculptor, graphic designer, poster artist, illustrator, architect, designer, decorative artist. Designs for carpets, advertising art, furniture, lamps, wallpaper.

Jugendstil.

Deutscher Werkbund.

Lucian Bernhard studied painting at the Kunstakademie in Munich, but taught himself design. He was active in Berlin. In ...

Article

Antoinette Le Normand-Romain

(b Montauban, Oct 30, 1861; d Le Vésinet, nr Paris, Oct 1, 1929).

French sculptor, painter and draughtsman. After working with his father, a cabinetmaker, in 1876 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. In 1884 he was admitted as a pupil of Alexandre Falguière to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, but in rebellion against academic training left two years later. He then moved into a house (now the Musée Bourdelle) in the Impasse du Maine; Jules Dalou, for whom he had the greatest admiration, lived near by.

Bourdelle had begun exhibiting at the Salon of the Société des Artistes Français in 1884 and at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts from 1891. In 1893 he became an assistant in Auguste Rodin’s studio, remaining there until 1908. This period was marked principally by his first major commission, the War Memorial (1895–1902) at Montauban, and by commencement of his Beethoven series, comprising 45 sculptures as well as pastels and drawings, work on which continued until ...

Article

Sanda Miller

(b Hobitza, Gorj, Feb 19, 1876; d Paris, March 16, 1957).

French sculptor, draughtsman, painter, and photographer of Romanian birth. He was one of the most influential 20th-century sculptors, but he left a relatively small body of work centred on 215 sculptures, of which about 50 are thought to have been lost or destroyed.

The fifth of seven children of a family of peasants, he left his tiny village c. 1887 for Slatina, after which he made his way to Craiova, the provincial capital of Oltenia. There he became a student at the School of Arts and Crafts in 1894. Mechanical technology, industrial design, mathematics, and physics figured prominently on his syllabus with some theoretical studies. He did not, therefore, receive a traditional academic training in sculpture; in fact he began studying at the newly founded Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest, but even there instruction was still at an experimental stage, particularly in sculpture.

Brancusi is thought to have been prolific in his student years in Craiova. Various objects subsequently discovered on the premises of his old school have been attributed to him, some of them perhaps as collaborations with other fellow students, including a walnut casket (Craiova, Maria C. S. Nicolǎescu-Plopşor priv. col., see Brezianu, ...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active in France from 1900.

Born 12 February 1856, in Milan; died 1940, in Molsheim (Bas-Rhin), France.

Painter, sculptor, designer of ornamental architectural features, decorative artist. Portraits. Furniture.

Orientalism, Art Nouveau.

Carlo Bugatti studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan, then at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was originally interested in architecture, producing work that was heavily influenced by the strong styles of ancient Egypt and Islam. He later decided to devote himself to designing furniture and ornamentation. His talent was soon recognised and he was awarded many distinctions at exhibitions in London, Turin and at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris. He sold his company in Milan and settled in Paris, then in 1910 in Compiègne. At the end of his life, beset by tragedies, including the suicide of his son Rembrandt in 1916, he went to live with his other son, Ettore, who had the car factory at Molsheim. Giovanni, Ettore's son and heir, was killed when testing a car in 1939....

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Orvieto; died 1910, in Rome.

Sculptor, painter, architect, engineer.

Adolfo Cozza was a pupil of the sculptor Giovanni Dupre in Florence. At a young age he executed the statues for the cathedral portal in Orvieto. He also collaborated on the erection of the funerary monument to Victor-Emmanuel. His most important work was for the Villa Borghese, where he painted and sculpted several decorations....

Article

Belgian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 14 October 1865, in Brussels; died 1959.

Painter, decorative designer, sculptor, architect. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes.

Dierickx was a pupil of Jean Portaels and Joseph Stallaert. In 1887 he won the Godecharle Prize, which enabled him to travel in Italy. He regularly participated in the activities of the ...

Article

Dutch, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 4 November 1877, in Hilversum.

Painter, sculptor, medallist, architect, decorative designer. Murals.

Carl Gresnicht entered the Benedictine abbey in Maredsous (Belgium) as a novice in 1898. He studied in Rome and worked on the decoration of the monastery of St Gabriel in Prague. In ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Active from 1933 active in Switzerland.

Born 4 May 1874, in Hörde (Westphalia); died 18 July 1949, in Interlaken or Beatenberg (Canton of Bern).

Sculptor (including bronze/majolica/ceramics), painter (including gouache), engraver, draughtsman, architect, graphic designer. Statuettes, figurines.

Jugendstil.

Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Worpswede Artists' Colony...

Article

Gjergj Frashëri

[Nikollë]

(b Shkodër, Aug 15, 1860; d Shkodër, Dec 12, 1939).

Albanian painter, architect, sculptor and photographer. His grandfather Andrea Idromeno was a painter and a doctor of theology; his father, Arsen Idromeno, was a furniture designer and painter. Kol Idromeno took private lessons in painting (1871–5) at the studio of the photographer and painter Pietro Marubi (1834–1903). In 1875 he won a competition and began studies at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Venice. However, due to arguments with his teacher, he abandoned the school and continued his studies in one of the large studios in Venice (1876–8).

At first Idromeno produced works with both religious and secular themes that were noted for their highly realistic rendering of the human form (e.g. St Mary Magdalene, oil on canvas, 1877; Shkodër Mus.). Many of his biblical works were executed in churches within the Shkodër district, with perhaps his best work being the frescoes of the Orthodox Church in Shkodër, especially the fragment depicting ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 30 September 1864, in Lörrach; died 12 December 1952, in Lörrach.

Painter, architect, draughtsman, sculptor, potter. Designs (fabrics/furniture/ceramics).

Max Laeuger began training as a painter in 1881 at the Kunstgewerbeschule, Karlsruhe under Franz Sales Mayer, before finishing his studies at the Académie Julian, Paris, from ...

Article

French, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 May 1847, in Paris.

Watercolourist, sculptor, architect. Architectural interiors.

Noël Marcel Lambert was a pupil at the École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. A member of the Société des Artistes Français from 1908, he took part in the Salon des Artistes Français, obtaining an honourable mention in ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 12 March 1832, in Haigerloch (Hohenzollern); died 28 January 1928, in Beuron.

Sculptor, painter, architect.

School of Beuron.

Peter Lenz studied at the academy in Munich and went on to become a member of the Benedictine Order. He founded and was the chief protagonist of the Beuron School. Examples of his work include statuettes of ...

Article

(b Cologne, Oct 10, 1837; d Utrecht, Feb 6, 1919).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the grandson of the painter Egidius Mengelberg (1770–1849) and received his training in the art school founded by the latter in Cologne, where his tutors included the architect Friedrich von Schmidt and the sculptor Christoph Stefan (1797–1864). Mengelberg then established a studio in Cologne, which from about 1860 was led in his absence by his brother Heinrich Otto Mengelberg (1841–91). From this period Mengelberg produced several altars with reliefs, statues and plaques, for example the high altar (1867) for St Paul in Aachen and the side altar (1882–3) for St Mariae Rosenkranz in Mönchengladbach. He also provided oil paintings and furniture for Cologne Cathedral, as well as designs for decorations and frescoes.

From 1869 onwards Mengelberg worked mainly for the Dutch bishopric of Utrecht. He was a leading member of the Guild of St Barnulphus, which took a great interest in medieval art, and, with the help of a large workshop, he created the archiepiscopal throne, the ciborium altars and the rood screen for the cathedral of St Catharina (now Utrecht, Catharijneconvent). He also provided the decoration for St Willibrordus (...

Article

Italian, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 8 December 1858, in Naples; died 1937 or 1938, in Naples.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, sculptor. Figures, portraits, genre scenes, local scenes (carnival), architectural views.

Vincenzo Migliaro studied under Domenico Morelli and the sculptor Stanislao Lista at the institute of fine arts in Naples. He went on to exhibit in Turin, Venice, Naples and Paris. Migliaro participated in the Alinari competition in 1900. He was essentially a realist painter of Romanesque subjects, landscapes and genre compositions, a notable example of his work being ...

Article

German, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 25 March 1870, in Munich; died 1942.

Painter, sculptor, engraver, designer.

Naager was taught by Stähuber, Ferdinand Barth, Hackl and Seitz. An architect, art critic and collector, he is also known for his frescoes, mosaics and sculptural decorations on public monuments in Berlin....

Article

Christopher Long

(b Lemberg [now Lviv, Ukraine], Dec 21, 1858; d Vienna, April 6, 1927).

Austrian architect, painter and sculptor. The son of an architect in imperial government service, he studied architecture with leading historicists Max von Ferstel (1859–1936) and Karl König (1841–1915) at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna (1877–82), and later with Ferdinand von Schmidt at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. After completing his studies (1885), he taught at the Staatsgewerbeschule in Vienna and in 1889 took a post at the School of Applied Arts in Prague. Although he established a reputation as one of the leading interpreters of the neo-Baroque, Ohmann became an early adherent to the style of the Viennese Secession and designed the first Jugendstil building in Prague, the Café Corso (1897–8). Like most Austrian architects of the period, however, Ohmann never wholly rejected the past and much of his later work blended neo-Baroque and Jugendstil forms.

In 1899 Ohmann was called back to Vienna to oversee the construction of the new wing of the Hofburg, the imperial palace. He resigned in ...

Article

German, 20th century, male.

Born 16 May 1872, in Münster; died 5 April 1943, in Baierbrunn (Upper Bavaria), in Munich according to other sources.

Architect, painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver, sculptor, interior designer, graphic designer. Portraits, landscapes with figures, landscapes, portraits. Stage sets, designs (furniture).

Jugendstil, Art Deco...