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Article

Greek, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1954, in Athens.

Draughtsman, engraver, sculptor, video artist. Multimedia.

Michalis Arfaras first studied painting at the school of fine arts in Athens between 1972 and 1974. He continued his studies at the college of fine arts in Brunswick in Germany where he specialised in engraving and produced book illustrations and comic strips. He now lives and works in Hildesheim where he teaches graphic art at the university....

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1962, in London.

Painter, draughtswoman, photographer, multimedia artist, installation artist.

Sonia Boyce studied art at East Ham College and the Stourbridge College of Art until 1983. Her work is informed by her experience as a black woman growing up and living in a white society, and addresses the themes of race, gender, religion, private and collective experience and cultural stereotyping. She came to prominence in the 1980s with her figurative works in chalk, pastel, charcoal and watercolour and digital and laser photographs. Since the late 1990s she has explored the potential of new media technologies for artistic expression. This has resulted in what she refers to as 'improvisational collaborations' involving other artists and audience participation. In ...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century.

Born 1961, in Lyons.

Draughtsman, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Neo-Conceptual Art.

Alain Bublex trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Mâcon, then at the École Supérieure de Design Industriel in Paris. For a few years, he worked as an industrial designer for the car makers Renault. His job as a designer had a strong influence on his early works: ...

Article

Austrian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1952, in Halle.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, installation artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Caramelle attended the Hochschule für angewandte Kunst in Vienna in 1970, before studying at the Center for Advanced Visual Studies in Cambridge (Massachusetts) from 1974 to 1975...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 22 May 1963, in Paris.

Painter, sculptor, draughtsman, mixed media, assemblage artist, video artist. Multimedia, artists' books.

Neo-Conceptual Art.

Groupe des Frères Ripoulin.

Claude Closky studied at the École des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and was a founder member of the Frères Ripoulin group. He was awarded the ...

Article

British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in London.

Born 22 October 1946, in London.

Installation artist, photographer, painter, digital artist, mixed media artist.

Tim Head studied fine art at the University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne from 1965 to 1969. In 1968 he spent a year in New York where he worked as an assistant to Claes Oldenburg before returning to London where he joined the sculpture course at St Martin’s School of Art in London (...

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1947, in Amiens.

Painter, sculptor, collage artist, installation artist, film producer, performance artist. Multimedia.

Joël Hubaut lives in Réville and teaches at the École des Beaux-Arts in Caen. A multimedia designer whose work is a kind of semiotic restless wandering, Hubaut makes references to artists such as Giotto, Duchamp, Pissarro and Beuys as well as writers such as Raymond Roussel, Lewis Carroll or Jules Verne, by weaving slogans, inscriptions and quotations into his sculptures and assemblages. For Pierre Restany, by mixing an all-consuming enthusiasm with a scattered and varied number of signs, word play, images and sound components, Hubaut's works are a critique of a kind of 'information pollution'....

Article

Mary Chou

(b Bethlehem, 1970).

Palestinian conceptual artist. Jacir’s works use a variety of media including film, photography, installation, performance, video, sound, sculpture and painting. Jacir was raised in Saudi Arabia and attended high school in Rome, Italy. She received her BA from the University of Dallas, Irving, TX in 1992, her MFA from the Memphis College of Art, Memphis, TN in 1994, and participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program from 1998 to 1999. She became a professor at the International Academy of Art, Palestine in Ramallah in 2007. Jacir’s conceptual works explore the physical and psychological effects of social and political displacement and exile, primarily how they affect the Palestinian community. Her work investigated the impact of Israeli action on the Palestinian people and countered representations of Palestinians in the press as primarily militant. Jacir often collaborated with members of the Palestinian community, both local and international, in the creation of her works....

Article

Italian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in France.

Born 1958, in Naples.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, installation artist, mixed media, performance artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Conceptual Art.

Lucariello lives and works in Paris. Using several different modes of expression (painting, sculpture, photography, videos), he has produced a varied oeuvre that delights in evoking triviality. He works via association of ideas, notably in the series where he associates landscapes and the artist photographed mid-laughter, scratching his buttocks....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 6 August 1945, in Salt Lake City.

Sculptor, draughtsman, performance artist, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Paul McCarthy received a BFA in 1969 from the San Francisco Art Institute, and an MFA in film at the University of Southern California in ...

Article

Iranian, 20th – 21st century, female.

Active in the USA.

Born 26 March 1957, in Qazvin, Iran.

Painter, video artist, installation artist, photographer. Multimedia.

Shirin Neshat was born in Iran but left to study art at the University of California, Berkeley, at the age of 17. She lives and works in New York. She won a Lion d’Or at the Venice Biennale in ...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1953.

Performance artist, video artist, draughtsman. Multimedia.

Marcel Odenbach studied architecture and history of art. Since 1976, he has produced performances and video installations at numerous galleries in Hamburg, Wiesbaden, Bonn, Cologne, Amsterdam, Berlin, Antwerp, Munich, Basel, São Paulo, Los Angeles and Boston....

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 19 May 1957, in New York.

Painter, draughtsman, sculptor, installation artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Tony Oursler studied at the California Institute of Arts, receiving a BFA in 1979. He is interested in the creative use of new video technology as an artistic tool. Oursler is best known for his surrealistic installations in which he combines a moving image, spoken text and sculptural objects, creating a complete mediated environment for the viewer to enter, like ...

Article

American, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in Belgium.

Born 1947, in Brooklyn (New York City).

Painter, sculptor, performance artist, video artist, assemblage artist, musician.

Charlemagne Palestine lives and works in Brussels. He is a multimedia artist who experiments with all forms of art: painting, sculpture, music, video and performance....

Article

French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 14 September 1964, in Oran, Algeria.

Draughtsman, sculptor, video artist. Multimedia.

Neo-Conceptual Art, Art Narratif, Esthétique Relationnelle.

Philippe Parreno studied at the École des Beaux-Arts in Grenoble from 1980 until 1986. He worked with Philippe Perrin, Pierre Joseph, Bernard Joisten and Dominique Gonzalez-Foester on several occasions in exhibitions such as ...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Stuttgart.

Painter, video artist. Multimedia.

Helmut Schweizer is active not only as a painter but also as a photographer and video artist. He exhibited an artists' book at the exhibition From Bonnard to Baselitz: A Decade of Acquisitions by the Prints Collection 1978-1988...

Article

Shannen Hill

(b Vryburg, 1953).

South African painter, printmaker, photographer, installation artist and video artist. She received an BA (1974) and an MA (1976) in Fine Arts from Rhodes University, Grahamstown, and a postgraduate diploma from Portsmouth Polytechnic, UK (1979). Her work has appeared in many exhibitions: the Venice Biennale (1993), the Bienal de Havana (1994, 1997), the Johannesburg Biennale (1995, 1997) and Kwanju Biennale in Korea (1995). She has explored different media and themes since gaining recognition for her high relief oil paintings of the 1980s, but her concerns remain those of process, conceptual dualities, histories told and remembered. Through narrative, allegory, appropriation, parody and punning, her subjects challenge racialized and gendered representations, and reveal history as ever-mediated. In Piling Wreckage Upon Wreckage (1989; Cape Town, N.G.) a black girl sits atop an expansive pile of objects (e.g. silverware, a grand piano, paintings) that denote civilized taste and fill the space to suggest limitlessness and domination. Unlike Western prototypes, the girl is overwhelmed by the debris and cannot control its associative meanings. Siopis continued to question ideological constructions in her work on urban domestic identities of the mid-1990s. Her work of the late 1990s was autobiographical, though firmly entangled within aparteid's complex past. ...

Article

German, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active since 1976 active in the USA.

Born 1950, in Stuttgart.

Painter, collage artist, video artist. Multimedia.

Wolfgang Staehle produces video installations which manipulate media images from television and advertising. He lives and works in New York. He has exhibited at the Sylvana Lorenz gallery in Paris....

Article

Israeli-British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Active in London from the late 1960s.

Born 1945, in Israel.

Video artist, painter, sculptor. Multimedia.

Amikam Toren spent his formative years in Tel Aviv learning to paint and draw under Peter Hesse. He had his first solo show at the Maserik Gallery in Tel Aviv in 1967. He subsequently went to Paris and then settled in London. Toren uses found objects such as paintings that he finds at junk shops and flea markets. In his series Armchair Paintings, Toren stencils incisions into such paintings’ surfaces to inscribe them with witty truisms or profane phrases that he has heard or read. The words act as a counterpoint to the often banal imagery of the paintings. In 2008, he began working collaboratively on film, sound, and architectural projects that record daily activities and the passage of time. Carrots (2008), his first video piece, deals with separate encounters between himself and people whom he meets by chance, whilst ...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....