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Article

Aimi  

Japanese, 9th – 10th century, male.

Active in Kyoto 9th-10th century.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Aimi was the son and pupil of Kose no Kanaoka, the founder of the Kose school, and a member of the imperial bureau of painting. Like his father he painted mainly Buddhist subjects as well as imaginary scenes....

Article

Arihisa  

Japanese, 14th century, male.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures.

Kose no Arihisa was the third son of Kose no Ariyuku and held important positions at court. His works include the portrait of two Mandarins and an image of Benzaiten, Goddess of Fortune. He worked at the temple of Kyoogokokuji in Kyoto between ...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born in Yancheng (Henan).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, scenes with figures.

Song dynasty.

Chen Yongzhi was a member of the Imperial Painting Academy during the Tiansheng period (1023-1032). A skilful artist, he painted Buddhist and Taoist as well as secular figures and was esteemed for his close attention to detail....

Article

Chinkai  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Born 1091; died 1152.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Fujiwara no Chinkai was a priest at the Zenriji temple in Yamashiro. One of his favourite subjects was Tokai Monju (the Buddha Monju crossing the waves).

Article

Korean, 20th century, male.

Active in Japan.

Born 1909, in Pyongyang.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Fua-Fang Chyun mainly painted statues of the Buddha. He expresses the essence of things rather than the things themselves, especially flowers. He had a solo exhibition in 1955 at Sri Aurobindo International University, Pondicherry, India, and in ...

Article

Emosaku  

Japanese, 17th century, male.

Born in Nagasaki.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Yamada Emosaku was active at the beginning of the 17th century. He was a painter in the service of Lord Matsukura and probably studied western painting with a European missionary in Nagasaki. He was arrested by the shogunate after the famous Shimabara Uprising in ...

Article

Chinese, 9th century, male.

Active in the middle of the 9th century in Chengdu (Sichuan).

Painter. Religious subjects. Murals.

Fan Qiong was a painter of religious subjects. He produced many mural paintings after Buddhism was restored in China in 850. His brushstrokes were said to be like wire....

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in Paris from 1913, naturalised in 1955.

Born 27 November 1886, in Edogama, near Tokyo, baptised in 1959; died 29 January 1968, in Zurich.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman (including ink/wash), fresco artist, print artist (including lithography/etching/aquatint), illustrator, decorative artist...

Article

Gensho  

Japanese, 12th century, male.

Born 1146; died 1206.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Gensho was a priest at the Getsujo-in temple on Mount Koyasan. He specialised in painting Buddhist subjects.

Tazawa, Yutaka: Biographical Dictionary of Japanese Art, Kodansha International Ltd, Tokyo, 1981.

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1895, in Matsue (Shimane Prefecture); died 1997.

Painter, engraver (wood). Religious subjects, nudes.

Sosaku Hanga.

The grandson of an architect and son of a carpenter, Hiratsuka graduated from Matsue Commercial School before studying Western painting with Ishii Hakutei and Umehara Ryuzaburo and woodblock printing with Igami Bonkotsu. He exhibited woodblock prints in the ...

Article

Chinese, 10th century, male.

Born c. 900, in Chengdu (Sichuan); died 965.

Painter. Religious subjects, flowers, birds.

Huang Quan was a painter in the service of Meng Cheng of the Later Shu kingdom. He painted religious subjects, both Buddhist and Taoist, but mainly flowers and birds, and it was as a flower and bird painter that he was highly appreciated at the Shu court academy. These paintings are very realistic in their detail and imbued with an intense vitality, thanks to a new technique, the so-called ...

Article

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Born 1887, in Kyoto; died 1948.

Painter. Religious subjects, landscapes.

Irie, after studying at the academy of fine art in Kyoto, where he had the opportunity to make numerous copies of the works of the Japanese old masters, became an art master at a private school. In ...

Article

Chinese, 12th century, male.

Active during the reign of the Song emperor Shaoxing (1131-1161).

Born in Kaifeng (Henan).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, land­scapes.

Jia Shigu was a painter of the Imperial Academy of Painting at Hangzhou, specialising in Buddhist and Taoist figures in the style of Li Gonglin (...

Article

Chinese, 13th – 14th century, female.

Active during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368).

Painter. Religious subjects.

A Jiajia was probably a nun.

Article

Toru Asano

(b Tokyo, June 23, 1891; d Tokuyama, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Dec 20, 1929).

Japanese painter and collector. Son of the progressive journalist Ginkō Kishida (1833–1905), he decided to leave school when he was 15, became a Christian and devoted himself to church activities. At the same time he painted and struggled with the decision of whether to live as a Christian or as a painter. In 1908 he entered the Aoibashi Western Painting Study Centre and studied plein-air painting under Seiki Kuroda (1866–1924), exhibiting two years later at the fourth Bunten, a show sponsored by the Japanese Ministry of Education. From the end of 1911 to early 1912 he was inspired by the work of modern French painters, which he discovered through the magazine Shirakaba (‘White birch’) and through illustrated books. The Self-portrait Wearing a Coat (1912; Tokyo, priv. col., see Hijikata, ed., 1980, pl. 1) was clearly painted under the influence of Vincent van Gogh and Tsukiji Settlement...

Article

Chinese, 11th century, male.

Born 1040, in Shucheng (Anhui Province); died 1106.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, animals.

Better known by his style name Li Longmian, which he adopted after the name of a mountain near his native village, Li Gonglin came from an important Jiangnan family. His father, a senior official who had resigned his post, had an important collection of antiques, and it was through studying these that Longmian gained the best of his training. In his turn, he too would become highly skilled in assessing antiques. He started his career in administration while young and would remain in it for thirty years until he was struck down by partial paralysis towards the close of his life....

Article

Chinese, 10th century, male.

Active during the Earlier Shu dynasty (908-925).

Born in Changdu (Sichuan).

Painter. Religious subjects, landscapes.

Li Sheng was a famous landscape painter said to have studied the style of Li Sixun (651-716) early in his career, a theory destined, no doubt, to give weight to a tradition according to which he was in fact the latter’s descendant. Indeed, he was also known as ‘Little General Li’, a sobriquet already given to Li Sixun’s son Li Zhaodao....

Article

Chinese, 12th century, male.

Active in Ningbo (Zhejiang Province)c.1160-1180.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Like Zhou Jichang, who was active at Ningbo at the same time, Lin Tinggui is known only for a series of 100 hanging scrolls, The Five Hundred Arhats (colour on silk), all of which the two artists painted in ...

Article

Ma Fen  

Chinese, 12th century, male.

Active during the first half of the 12th century.

Born in Hezhong (Shanxi).

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Ma-Fen was a painter of Buddhist and animal figures and a member ( daizhao) of the academy of fine arts in the court of Kaifeng in about ...

Article

Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....