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Antiquus, Johannes  

Dutch, 18th century, male.

Born 1702, in Groningen; died 1750.

Painter, glass painter, decorative artist. Figure compositions, portraits.

Johannes Antiquus studied glass painting with Gerard van der Veen and worked for a number of years in this field. He then placed himself under the direction of Jan Abel Wassenbergh, a distinguished painter of historical portraits, remaining with him for several years. Thereafter, Antiquus went to France, where he worked mainly as a portrait painter; however, his urge to visit Italy cut short his time in Paris. In Italy, he stayed mainly in Florence, where he was employed by the grand dukes of Tuscany for six years. His principal work was an important composition depicting the fall of the race of giants. When he returned to Holland he was very warmly received. The Prince of Orange commissioned him to decorate Het Loo Palace, for which he produced a large work showing ...


Courting mirror  

Gordon Campbell

Modern term for a type of 18th-century American mirror, sometimes given as a courting gift and often hung in hallways for last-minute grooming; early examples were imported (sometimes from the Netherlands), but thereafter most were made in New England. The frame typically consisted of painted glass strips, often in a metal moulding; some were surmounted with a crested area containing a picture....


Federal style  

Damie Stillman

Architectural and decorative arts style that flourished in the USA from shortly after the acknowledgement of independence in the Treaty of Paris (1783) until c. 1820. The term is derived from the period surrounding the creation of the federal constitution in 1787 and was in use in a political sense by that year. Essentially it was a form of Neo-classicism, strongly influenced by manifestations of that style in England and, to a lesser extent, in France; but at times certain more conservative qualities inherited from the previous Colonial period are also present. The inspiration of European, and especially English, Neo-classical architecture was to be expected in a society grounded in that of 18th-century England; but an added impetus was the association often cited at the time between the fledgling American republic and the ancient Roman one.

Although a few indications of European Neo-classical influence are found in the American colonies before the Revolution began in ...


Forrer, Jakob  

Swiss, 17th – 18th century, male.

Born 1 January 1661, in Winterthur; died 21 July 1719, in Winterthur.

Glass painter, decorative artist.

Jakob Forrer produced stained glass windows for the church in Belp (Bern canton) and for his home town.


Gothic Revival  

Georg Germann, Melissa Ragain, and Pippa Shirley

Term applied to a style of architecture and the decorative arts inspired by the Gothic architecture of medieval Europe. It has been particularly widely applied to churches but has also been used to describe castellated mansions, collegiate buildings, and houses. The Gothic Revival has also been described by many scholars as a movement, rather than style, for in the mid-19th century it was associated with and propagated by religious and political faith. From a hesitant start in the mid-18th century in England and Scotland, in the 19th century it became one of the principal styles of building throughout the world and continued in some huge projects until well into the 20th century (e.g. Episcopal Cathedral, Washington, DC, 1908–90; by G(eorge) F(rederick) Bodley and others). ‘Gothic Revival’ became the standard English term when Charles Locke Eastlake published A History of the Gothic Revival (1872). The word ‘Gothic’ had by then definitely mutated from a depreciatory epithet into the denomination of a style or period of medieval architecture. To distinguish medieval Gothic from modern Gothic, most European languages used the prefix ‘neo-’ (e.g. Dut. ...



Term used for a manifestation of the Neo-classical style initiated in the decorative arts of France during the Second Empire (1852–71) of Napoleon III and his wife, the Empress Eugénie. Based on the standard repertory of Greco-Roman ornament, it combined elements from the Adam, Louis XVI and Egyptian styles with a range of motifs inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, where excavations had begun in 1848; it can be identified by the frequent use of Classical heads and figures, masks, winged griffins, sea-serpents, urns, medallions, arabesques, lotus buds and borders of anthemion, guilloche and Greek fret pattern. Néo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted, polychromatic and sometimes bizarre; it enjoyed popularity as one of the many revival styles of the second half of the 19th century.

In Paris, the Néo-Grec style was best exemplified in the famous ‘Maison Pompéienne’ (1856–8; destr. 1891) designed for Prince Napoléon Bonaparte (see...