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Italian, 18th century, male.

Born c. 1675, in Rome; died c. 1730.

Engraver (burin), art dealer. Religious subjects, architectural views.

Worked initially under the tutelage of his father, Pietro Santo Bartoli. It is probable that this is the same artist as F. Bartoli who produced coloured drawings based on religious works in St Peter's in Rome on behalf of the English art collector John Talman. The volume containing these engraved illustrations has been in the British Museum in London since ...


David Blayney Brown


(b Great Dunmow, Essex, Nov 6, 1753; d Coleorton, Leics, Feb 7, 1827).

Amateur painter and draughtsman, collector and patron. He was the quintessential amateur, whose interests extended to literature and drama as well as to art; he became the leading arbiter of taste of his day. The painter Thomas Hearne described him as the ‘supreme dictator on works of art’. While Beaumont strongly supported new trends in poetry and did much to foster the careers of William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge, he maintained essentially 18th-century standards in his connoisseurship. His love of art had begun at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by Alexander Cozens; it was confirmed in 1771 by a meeting with the engraver William Woollett and Hearne, then Woollett’s pupil. Subsequently Beaumont was guided by a succession of distinguished artists including John Robert Cozens, Joshua Reynolds, Thomas Gainsborough, Richard Wilson, Thomas Jones, Joseph Farington, Benjamin West, Thomas Girtin and John Constable. His own work, of which there is a large collection in the ...


Anne Thackray

(b Bourges; d Paris, 1715).

French collector, patron and amateur draughtsman. A member of the Bourges family that included the great Jesuit preacher Father Louis de Bourdaloue, Claude de Bourdaloue built up a collection in Paris (mostly untraced), which Germain Brice, who gives no specific details, knew to include a hoard of paintings and drawings by famous masters, a large collection of rare prints and a considerable number of antique engraved gems. Bourdaloue also owned Rubens’s manuscript Pocketbook on art, which he had purchased from Roger de Piles; after his death it was acquired by André-Charles Boulle, but was badly damaged in a fire in 1720 in Boulle’s studio in the Louvre, Paris (fragments and partial transcripts survive). De Piles recorded that the Pocketbook included Rubens’s observations on optics, chiaroscuro, proportion, anatomy and architecture as well as extracts from poetry concerning human passions, with illustrations copied from ‘the best masters’, principally Raphael. Bourdaloue is known to have commissioned drawings (untraced) from ...


Gerard Vaughan

(b Tonley, Aberdeenshire [now Grampian], 1734; d Tonley, Sept 1817).

Scottish antiquarian, dealer and architect, active in Italy. As the son of a Catholic Jacobite laird obliged to flee in the aftermath of the rebellion of 1745 he was educated in France. After returning briefly to Britain, he decided to travel to Rome to study painting, where he became a pupil of Anton Raphael Mengs. Richard Hayward, in his list of artists visiting Rome (London, BM), and Robert Strange both gave 1758 as the date of his arrival, but there is evidence to suggest he was in Rome by 1756 (Ford, p. 447). Deciding that his talents lay elsewhere, he turned to architecture, in 1762 causing interest in Britain by winning a prize in the Concorso Clementino at the Accademia di S Luca, Rome, with a design for a palace in the rather heavy late Baroque style characteristic of Ferdinando Fuga and Luigi Vanvitelli. Byres never established a practice, though he designed a series of buildings for British visitors to Rome, none of which was executed. He was elected to the Accademia di S Luca in ...


Howard Colvin

(b May 7, 1661; d Oxford, Oct 22, 1736).

English politician, architect and virtuoso. He was the son of Sir William Clarke, Secretary at War to Charles II. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, graduating as MA in 1683, Bachelor of Civil Law in 1686 and Doctor of Civil Law in 1708. In 1680 he was elected to a Fellowship at All Souls College, which he retained for the rest of his life. He entered politics in 1685 as Tory MP for the University of Oxford and subsequently represented the university from 1717 until his death. He held various offices under the Tory government, including those of Judge Advocate-General (1682–1705), Secretary at War (1692–1704) and joint Secretary to the Admiralty (1702–5). He was a Lord of the Admiralty from 1710 to 1714, when (on the death of Queen Anne) he relinquished office and devoted himself to academic life. He was buried in All Souls Chapel, where a monument commemorates his ‘taste in architecture, poetry and painting’....


Marta Galicki

(b Stockholm, April 25, 1709; d Stockholm, Nov 9, 1777).

Swedish architect, administrator, designer and collector. Considered the most technically orientated of 18th-century Swedish architects, he studied mechanics under the engineer Christoffer Polhem (1661–1751) and architecture and drawing with Carl Hårleman and continued his studies in Paris and Rome, while recruiting artisans for work on the Royal Palace, Stockholm. He became Hårleman’s assistant during the construction of the palace and succeeded him as Superintendent of Works (1753–68). He used the Baroque style in his refurbishment of the interior of the church of St Mary, Stockholm (1760). He was also responsible for the Rococo interiors of the royal palaces of Drottningholm and Stockholm and designed several country houses, such as Svenneby in Östergötland and Myrö in Närke (both 1770). As an urban planner he is best known for his designs for bridges. He also invented (1767) a type of tiled stove that remained a typical feature of Swedish interiors (...


(b Alloa, Central, Feb 1675; d Aix-la-Chapelle, May 1732).

Scottish patron and amateur architect. He inherited the title of Earl of Mar in 1689, having completed his education and a Grand Tour. Although a Catholic, Mar’s political sympathies wavered between loyalty to George I and support for the King’s Jacobite enemies. Despite the fact that he inherited immense debts, Mar became the first patron of the architect James Gibbs and commissioned from him Comley Bank Lodge (unexecuted) for his estate at Alloa (c. 1710; design in Oxford, Worcester Coll. Lib.), as well as other alterations and improvements. Mar and Hugh Campbell, 3rd Earl of Loudoun (d 1731), became Secretaries of State for Scotland, and again Gibbs was employed to divide a house in London at Privy Gardens, Whitehall, to make a home for each of them (1715; destr.). As Gibbs’s first British patron, Mar played an important part in his early success and in 1713...


Andrew W. Moore

(b Salle, Norfolk, 1676; d Narford, Norfolk, Sept 4, 1753).

English collector and architect. He was the eldest son of Andrew Fountaine and Sarah Chicheley. In 1696 he was introduced to the court of William III and was knighted in 1698. In 1701 he accompanied Lord Macclesfield to carry the Act of Succession to the Elector of Hannover, whose gift of a silver-gilt salver remains in the family collection (priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 107). Fountaine then undertook the Grand Tour. He was initially interested in coins and medals, but among the few works of art acquired on this tour was his own youthful portrait in red chalk by Carlo Maratti (priv. col., see 1985 exh. cat., p. 93).

Fountaine had returned to London by the end of 1703. On his father’s death in 1706, he inherited the estate and newly built hall at Narford, Norfolk, although he did not reside there until 1732–3. He embarked on a second Grand Tour of France and Italy, beginning in Paris in ...


Kim Sloan

[de Grey]

English family of architects, patrons and collectors. Principally noted for their interest in garden design and architecture as represented in the family estate at Wrest Park, Beds, many generations of the family were active as statesmen and parliamentarians. Among the important works of art once owned by the family are Claude Lorrain’s Coast View of the Embarkation of Carlo and Ubaldo (Toronto, A. G. Ont.) and Anthony van Dyck’s portrait of the Balbi Children (London, N.G.). In 1676 Anthony, 11th Earl Grey (b 1645; d 19 Aug 1702), designed and built a new north front for the Elizabethan house at Wrest; during the late 1680s he began making Baroque formal gardens to the south of it. His son, Henry Grey, 12th Earl of Kent (b 1671; d 5 June 1740), whose Grand Tour in 1690–91 had included a visit to Rome, inherited the estate on his father’s death and resumed work on the gardens in ...


French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 18 July 1758, in Courtrai; died 12 January 1835, in Paris.

Painter, picture dealer. Church interiors, architectural views.

Pierre Joseph Lafontaine was first a student of Kaplan Van Neste, a distinguished connoisseur, who had him accepted by the academy in Courtrai, and then he worked with Jean Douelle. He concentrated especially on the painting of church interiors. He went to Paris, where he seems to have had some success. Taunay, Demarne, Swebach and Drolling worked on some of his pictures. Bryan's ...


Michael McCarthy

(b Arbury, Warwicks, May 30, 1719; d Arbury, Nov 25, 1806).

English politician, architect, draughtsman, patron and collector. In 1734 he succeeded his brother as fifth baronet. He was educated at Westminster School and University College, Oxford, and set out on a Grand Tour after graduating in 1739. He made an intensive study of Imperial Roman remains in France and Italy. His record of ruins in Provence is the most complete and exact of the 18th century. In Italy he made the fullest visual record of the disposition of works of art in the Uffizi and other collections and of the remains of Roman tombs along the Appian Way (drawings, Warwick Co. Rec. Office; priv. col.). Newdigate’s style is remarkably close to that of Piranesi, although they did not meet until 1775, during Newdigate’s second Grand Tour, when Newdigate purchased from him the two candelabra that he subsequently presented to Oxford University, along with 12 bound volumes of Piranesi’s prints (all Oxford, Ashmolean). In the same year ...


Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...


Alain Gruber

(b Besançon, Oct 25, 1745; d Besançon, Aug 1, 1819).

French architect and stage designer. He was the son of Pierre-François Pâris, a master builder turned architect. He was brought up in the modest court of the Prince-Bishop of Basle at Porrentruy in Switzerland, where from 1750 his father was official architect and topographer. He went to Paris probably in 1760 to study under the architect Louis-François Trouard, and after three unsuccessful attempts at the Prix de Rome in 1766, 1768 and 1769, he obtained the support of the Marquis de Marigny and the Duc d’Aumont with his project for entertainments at the wedding of the Dauphin and Marie-Antoinette, planned for 1770. He then went to the Académie de France in Rome as tutor to Trouard’s young son. During his five years there he associated with Cardinal de Bernis, Charles de Wailly, Jean-Honoré Fragonard and Bergeret de Grancourt and contributed to the Abbé de Saint-Non’s Voyage pittoresque with drawings of antique monuments at Pompeii, Paestum, Herculaneum and elsewhere. He also travelled through Italy, from Sicily to Venice and the Piedmont, and kept travel journals of considerable interest. His many portfolios of architectural drawings were highly successful on his return to Paris and brought him employment: improvements to the Duc d’Aumont’s residence on the Place Louis XV (...


(b ?London, March 3, 1737; d Pisa, Jan 19, 1793).

English architect and patron. He was educated at Cambridge University, where he became friendly with the medievalists William Cole (1714–82) and Thomas Gray (1716–71). He travelled to Spain and Portugal in 1760 and there compiled a journal that gave the first descriptions in English of a large number of Iberian Gothic antiquities. Circulated privately, the manuscript contributed to the scholarship of English antiquaries. Pitt’s work as a Gothic Revivalist includes decoration (1762–4) at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, nr London, for Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford; refurbishment (1764–8) at Carlisle and Norwich cathedrals; and alterations (1783) at Holywell House, St Albans, Herts. Pitt’s uncle, Charles Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle and President of the Society of Antiquaries, encouraged his nephew’s Gothic interests, and family connections provided Pitt’s most important commissions. Between 1765 and 1777 Pitt built garden buildings, including the Corinthian arch for his cousins, the Grenvilles, at Stowe, Bucks, and adapted an Adam design for the south front of the house. Pitt’s career illustrates the importance of the tradition of the amateur architect among leading 18th-century families and their interest in new stylistic possibilities....



Charles B. McClendon

Italian former Benedictine abbey near the mouth of the Po River and 45 km north of Ravenna in the province of Emilia Romagna. Although first documented in ad 874, a monastic settlement probably existed there at least two centuries earlier. Pomposa rose to prominence in the 10th and 11th centuries through the support of the Holy Roman emperors. Over the course of the 14th century, a notable series of wall paintings in three different buildings were sponsored despite the monastery’s waning fortunes. In 1663 the monastic community was suppressed by papal decree. The site was secularized in 1802 and became property of the Italian state after 1870.

The proportions of the wooden-roofed basilican church, along with the polygonal outline of its main apse, reflect influence from nearby Ravenna and Classe and suggest a date in the 8th or 9th century. An elaborate pavement of mosaic and cut stone (opus sectile...


Antonio Vannugli

(b Rome, Jan 14, 1671; d La Granja de San Ildefonso, June 24, 1734).

Italian painter, draughtsman and architect. A pupil of Carlo Maratti, he is first documented in 1702, among the restorers of Raphael’s fresco decorations (1511–14) in the Vatican. His Tarquinius and Lucretia (c. 1705; Holkham Hall, Norfolk) has cold colours and unnatural gestures that recall Guido Reni. Appointed by Pope Clement XI, between 1710 and 1717 Procaccini supervised the tapestry factory in S Michele a Ripa: the Purification of the Virgin (Rome, Vatican, Consistory Hall) is the only extant tapestry made from a cartoon (untraced) by Maratti and an oil painting (untraced) by Procaccini. The Baptism of Cornelius Centurion (1711; Urbino, S Francesco) for the Baptism Chapel in St Peter’s, Rome, was previously attributed to Maratti or Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari, but Procaccini apparently based it on sketches supplied by Maratti, who also supervised and revised the work before it was displayed. Pope Pius V Triumphant over the Turks...


Giles Worsley

(b c. 1702; d London, March 3, 1777).

English architect, administrator and collector. The epitome of the 18th-century English amateur architect, he built four houses for himself and designed at least eight other buildings, and more are attributed to him. His most important work was Rokeby Park, Durham, built for himself c. 1725–31 and altered c. 1753. Both house and grounds were modelled on Pliny the younger’s descriptions of his Roman villas. Robinson built two houses (destr.) for himself in London and during his time as Governor of Barbados (1742–7) planned alterations to his official residence at Pilgrim. His biggest commissions were for the west wing (1753–9) at Castle Howard, N. Yorks, and substantial additions, including a ballroom and rotunda (destr.), at Claydon (1768–77; one wing survives), Bucks. Robinson was a skilled Palladian architect, but he also designed in the Gothick style. His buildings show the influence of the work of his friend Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork, and of William Kent, as well as that of Palladio. His direct quotations from Classical architecture—modelling Rokeby on Pliny’s villas or his use of the baseless Roman Doric column—show that Robinson can be best described as an early Neo-classicist. He engaged ...


(b Vienna, Nov 30, 1738; d London, July 20, 1786).

English diplomat, patron and amateur architect. Son of an ambassador and grandson of Colen Campbell’s patron, Sir William Robinson of Newby (now Baldersby) Park, N. Yorks, he had a cosmopolitan upbringing. In 1759 he studied architecture under Giovanni Battista Borra for 9 months at the Accademia in Turin, after which he travelled to Rome. A portfolio of Robinson’s own architectural drawings (Newby Hall, N. Yorks) includes Italian buildings as well as designs for a town hall and others for a triumphal arch. He did not have the funds to amass a collection while he was there, although he was regarded as a connoisseur and known to be particularly interested in cameos and intaglios. He was an early patron of Anton Raphael Mengs, who painted his portrait (Newby Hall, N. Yorks), and Robinson also sat to Nathaniel Dance-Holland, whom he recommended to other English patrons. He was also instrumental in promoting the young American painter Benjamin West (he later did the same for Gilbert Stuart). Robinson appears in Thomas Patch’s ...


David Watkin

(b Goring on Thames, Oxon, Sept 10, 1753; d London, Jan 20, 1837).

English architect and collector. Soane has long been recognized as the most original architect in Britain, and possibly in Europe, around 1800. Intent on returning to first principles, he developed a personal language of strange and often bizarre poetry that found no real imitators and, although steeped in the Classical tradition, he reduced the orders to a system of incised lines that are a parallel to the fundamentalist doctrines of the Abbé Marc-Antoine Laugier. At the same time he bathed his interiors in light from hidden sources in a manner that, while ultimately Baroque, may owe something to Piranesi.

Born in modest circumstances as the son of a bricklayer, Soane was trained for four years from 1768 by the inventive architect George Dance (ii) before working in the office of Henry Holland from 1772 to 1777. Later in his career Soane developed his architectural ideas in close but informal association with Dance, his ‘revered master’, with whom he shared a preoccupation with toplighting and a concern to create what Dance called ‘unshackled’ architecture. In ...


(b Kogel, nr Ratzeburg, March 22, 1662; d Dresden, Aug 14, 1734).

German diplomat, building administrator and patron. He came from the old aristocracy of Lower Saxony. In 1685 he was summoned to the court in Dresden of John-George III, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland (reg 1680–91), where he trained under Wolf Caspar von Klengel in the science of building and fortifications. His studies took him as far as the Peloponnese and twice to Rome (1691 and 1695). Elector Frederick-Augustus I appointed him to succeed Johann Georg Starke in 1695 as chief supervisor of civil buildings, and in 1697 he became general superintendent of military and civil building and of all academies in Saxony and Poland. He reorganized the state building office, enabling it to function with improved effectiveness. In 1705 Wackerbarth was promoted to the rank of Reichsgraf, and from 1718, as governor of Dresden, he was also in charge of private building there. Under his direction building regulations were issued in ...