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Article

Austrian, 18th century, male.

Active in Vienna, from 1780 to 1801.

Died 1802.

Engraver (line-engraving), draughtsman.

According to Bartsch, he was a pupil of landscape artist Brand. By 1787 he had a major studio where he employed 20 or so engravers making maps and English drawings. His name appears on the title page ...

Article

Andreas Kreul

(b Hamburg, Oct 2, 1757; d Pisa, Aug 18, 1806).

German architect, draughtsman, landscape designer and painter. He studied from 1778 to 1783 at the University of Göttingen and the Royal Danish Academy in Copenhagen, where he was awarded four prizes. His early designs included drawings for the hothouse of the botanic gardens in Copenhagen and a lecture room at Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin. While visiting Paris in 1784–5 he devoted himself to the study of Revolutionary architecture, and in England and Italy (1786) he studied landscape design and ancient sites. In Rome in 1787 he met Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who later summoned him to Weimar to rebuild the prince’s Schloss. In addition to a number of designs for the palace at Weimar he produced drawings for various summer-houses. In 1790 he moved to Hamburg, his plans for the Schloss at Weimar still largely unexecuted. By the end of his life he had designed numerous public buildings and private houses in Hamburg, including the house for Bürgermeister ...

Article

British, 18th century, male.

Born 1720, in Taunton; died 21 August 1791, in Hestercombe.

Painter, watercolourist, engraver, landscape gardener. Landscapes.

Coplestone Warre Bampfylde is above all remembered for his contribution to landscape garden design, particularly to the estate of Hestercombe House where he lived from the 1750s. He exhibited a landscape of ...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Gotha, Dec 27, 1725; d Vienna, March 23, 1806).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the son of a court gardener who worked first in Gotha and then in Württemberg. He was originally intended to become an architect; in 1747 Duke Charles-Eugene of Württemberg sent him to train in Paris where, under the influence of painters such as Charles-Joseph Natoire and François Boucher, he turned to painting. The eight-year period of study in Rome that followed prompted Beyer to devote himself to sculpture, as he was impressed by antique works of sculpture and was also influenced by his close contacts with Johann Joachim Winckelmann and his circle. He also served an apprenticeship with Filippo della Valle, one of the main representatives of the Neo-classical tendency in sculpture. In 1759 Beyer returned to Germany, to take part in the decoration of Charles-Eugene’s Neues Schloss in Stuttgart.

In Stuttgart Beyer made an important contribution to the founding and improvement of facilities for the training of artists, notably at the Akademie, and to manufacture in the field of arts and crafts, particularly at the ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Activec.1700.

Draughtsman. Gardens, flowers.

Carbonet was a pupil of Lenôtre and planned numerous gardens.

Article

French, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1749, in Versailles; died 1825, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), watercolourist, sculptor, draughtsman (wash), engraver, decorative artist. Mythological subjects, allegorical subjects, historical portraits, hunting scenes, interiors with figures, gardens. Stage costumes and sets, furniture, designs for fabrics, frontispieces.

Dugourc's father, who was in the service of the Duke of Orléans, had a considerable fortune. Dugourc was permitted to attend the lessons taken by the Duke of Chartres (the future Philippe-Égalité), and at the age 15 left for Rome, attached to the embassy of the Count of Cani. From his infancy, he had shown an aptitude for drawing, perspective and architecture. However, the death of his mother, followed shortly after by the loss of his father's fortune, changed his life. From being an amateur, Dugourc became a professional artist, and executed paintings, sculptures and engravings. In a work published in ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1769, in Paddington; died 1821, in London.

Painter, miniaturist, watercolourist, draughtsman. Portraits.

Henry Edridge may have been a pupil of Pether, the mezzotint engraver and landscape artist, but he excelled above all at miniatures, which he did in Indian ink and watercolour. Elected an associate of the Royal Academy in ...

Article

Gerta Calmann

(b Heidelberg, Jan 30, 1708; d London, Sept 9, 1770).

German draughtsman and painter, active also in England. While working as a gardener, he used his free time to draw plants, persevering until he abandoned gardening altogether. His lifelong patron, Dr Christoph Jacob Trew (1695–1769) of Nuremberg, instructed him in botany and provided him with good-quality paper. Journeying, mainly on foot, through Switzerland and France, he learnt in Paris the technique of painting on vellum. In Holland he met Linnaeus (1707–78), to whose Hortus Cliffortianus (Amsterdam, 1737–8) he contributed several botanical illustrations and whose system of plant classification he made known by publishing a ‘tabella’ (Leiden, 1736).

In 1736 Ehret settled permanently in England. He first worked with Philip Miller (1691–1771), head of the Chelsea Physic Garden, whose sister-in-law he married, then found patrons among scientists who commissioned him to illustrate their botanical articles and travel books. He published his own engraved and hand-coloured plant-book, ...

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1747, in Rome; died 1819, in Milan.

Painter. Landscapes with figures, landscapes, seascapes.

The son of Filippo Fidanza, he studied under Vernet and Lacroix. He was an accomplished landscape artist who worked for Eugène de Beauharnais.

Florence (Uffizi): drawings...

Article

[P’yetro di Gonzaga]

(b Longarone, nr Venice, March 25, 1751; d St Petersburg, Aug 6, 1831).

Italian painter, stage designer and landscape designer, also active in Russia. He studied in Venice (1769–72) under Giuseppe Moretti and Antonio Visentini (1688–1782) and finished his education in Milan (1772–8), studying with the stage designers Bernardino, Fabrizio and Giovanni Antonio Galliari. He was considerably influenced by the works of Canaletto and Piranesi. He made his début as a stage designer in Milan at the Teatro alla Scala in 1779 and designed over 60 productions in Milan, Rome, Genoa and other Italian cities. From 1792 he worked in Russia, where he went on the recommendation of Prince Nikolay Yusupov, who was at that time the chief director of music and pageantry at the court of Catherine II.

In his stage designs Gonzago put into effect his theoretical principles, which he explained in the handbook Information à mon chef ou éclaircissement convenable du décorateur théâtral (St Petersburg, ...

Article

Irish, 18th century, male.

Born in Dublin; died 11 September 1796, in Maidstone.

Painter. Genre scenes.

Henry Hodgins was a pupil of Robert Carver. He was a scenery painter at Covent Garden Theatre, and may be the same person as the landscape artist of the same name....

Article

Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born c. 1760; died after 1833.

Painter, watercolourist. Genre scenes, flowers, animals.

James Lambert the Younger was the son of landscape artist, James Lambert the Elder. Between 1769 and 1778, he exhibited his work at the Free Society and at the Royal Academy....

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 22 January 1690, in Paris; died 14 September 1743, in Paris.

Painter (including gouache), draughtsman (including red chalk). Genre scenes, interiors with figures, hunting scenes, scenes with figures, allegorical subjects, figures, portraits, landscapes, landscapes with figures, gardens, animals, birds. Decorative schemes, decorative designs, murals...

Article

Italian, 18th century, male.

Born 20 June 1737, in Bologna; died 20 April 1807, in Bologna.

Painter, fresco artist. Landscapes.

Vincenzo Martinelli was the nephew and pupil of Carlo Lodi. He was the best landscape artist in Bologna during the 18th century. He is best known for his frescoes in the oratory of S Croce in Bologna....

Article

Italian, 18th – 19th century, male.

Active in Venice.

Born 10 May 1754, in Pistoia; died 16 November 1831, in Venice.

Painter, draughtsman, engraver. Portraits, genre scenes.

Matteini was the father of the landscape artist Anna. He studied art in Rome with Batoni and Mengs, and worked in Florence and Milan. He engraved ...

Article

Richard Jeffree

(fl 1730–65).

English painter, possibly of Spanish origin. Apart from his marriage in London in the late 1720s, no details of his life are known, although a number of signed and dated works survive. He is best known for two remarkable series of garden views, the earlier being a set of eight of the Gardens of Hartwell House, Bucks, one of them dated 1732 and another dated 1738 (all Aylesbury, Bucks Co. Mus.). The later series exists in more than one set and depicts the Gardens of Studley Royal and Fountains Abbey, Yorks (e.g. four sold at Christie’s, 11 April 1980, lot 92, one signed and dated 1762). There are also several signed and dated examples of his Covent Garden Market (version, 1735; Woburn Abbey, Beds; version, 1737; London, Tate). Nebot also painted small genre scenes on copper and one signed and dated portrait of Thomas Coram (1741; London, Foundling Hosp.)....

Article

Italian, 17th – 18th century, female.

Born 1668, in Bologna; died 1737.

Painter, draughtsman. Portraits, landscapes.

A pupil of Emilio Taruffi, she was an excellent landscape artist and often included well-drawn figures. Her works are mostly in private collections in Bologna.

Article

Elizabeth Allen

(b London, 1731; d London, Dec 18, 1810).

English painter and stage designer. From 1759 Richards was a very successful painter at Covent Garden, London, where he collaborated with Nicholas Thomas Dall (fl 1760–71; d 1777) and Giovanni Battista Cipriani, and from 1777 to 1803 he was the theatre’s Principal Painter. From 1762 he exhibited landscapes and ruin pieces at the Society of Artists of Great Britain, as well as a scene from a stage setting for the Maid of the Mill (New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.); engraved by William Woollett in 1768, it achieved great popularity. Richards exhibited at the Free Society of Artists from 1769 to 1783, and was a founder-member of the Royal Academy, where from 1769 to 1809 he exhibited capriccios and landscapes, and occasionally, early intimations of the picturesque, such as a Cascade at Hestercombe (signed and dated 1770; Stourhead, Wilts, NT). His watercolours, such as Orpington (1768...

Article

Jean de Cayeux

[Robert des Ruines]

(b Paris, May 22, 1733; d Paris, April 15, 1808).

French painter, draughtsman, etcher and landscape designer. He was one of the most prolific and engaging landscape painters in 18th-century France. He specialized in architectural scenes in which topographical elements derived from the buildings and monuments of ancient and modern Italy and of France are combined in often fantastic settings or fictitious juxtapositions. The fluid touch and rich impasto employed in his paintings, also shared by his friend Jean-Honoré Fragonard, are matched by the freedom of his numerous red chalk drawings and the few etchings that he is known to have produced.

Robert’s father was an official in the service of the Marquis de Stainville whose son, the Comte de Stainville (later Duc de Choiseul), became the young artist’s protector. According to Mariette, Robert learnt drawing as a pupil of the sculptor René-Michel (Michel-Ange) Slodtz, although other sources suggest, improbably, that he studied with the painter Pierre-Jacques Cazes. It is certain, however, that he received a classical education in Paris, at either the aristocratic Collège de Navarre or the Collège de Beauvais....