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Agostini, Angelo  

Roberto Pontual

revised by Elaine Wilson

(b Vercelli, Italy, 1843; d Rio de Janeiro, 1910).

Brazilian caricaturist and painter. He came to Brazil in 1859, having already acquired some knowledge of painting in Paris. He settled initially in São Paulo, where he at once started to publish caricatures attacking black slavery. There, in 1864, he was one of the founders of the comic newspaper O Diabo Coxo. His abolitionist spirit continued after he moved to Rio de Janeiro, through his frequent collaboration in periodicals such as A Vida Fluminense, O Mosquito, Don Quixote, and O Malho. In the Revista Ilustrada he began to publish in 1884 the first long-running strip cartoon in Brazil, the adventures of Zé Caipora, a sertão (hinterland) character, depicting a lesser-known side of Brazil. As a painter he specialized in landscapes but also produced portraits with the same fervor that fired his enjoyable and impassioned satirical drawings, for example Portrait of the Writer Joaquin Augusto Ribeiro de Sousa (c. 1890...


Altmann, Roberto  

Cuban, 20th century, male.

Active in Liechtenstein and in France since 1962, naturalised citizen of Liechtenstein.

Born 10 August 1942, in Havana.


Visual Poetry.

Roberto Altmann lives in Paris and Liechtenstein. Since 1962 he has taken part in many collective exhibitions in France, Germany, Belgium, England and America. In ...


Alÿs, Francis  

Francis Summers

revised by Martin R. Patrick

(b Antwerp, Aug 22, 1959).

Belgian-born interdisciplinary artist, active in Mexico. He studied architecture at the Institut d’Architecture de Tournai in Belgium (1978–83) and at the Istituto Universitario di Architettura in Venice (1983–6). Alÿs moved to Mexico in 1987 and his art practice initially concentrated on Mexico City as a laboratory of urban living, often documented in the form of evocative, conceptually layered photographs, sculptures, and videos. In the slide series Ambulantes (Pushing and Pulling) (1992–2002), Alÿs photographed street vendors and workers as they passed by carting a wide variety of goods within a ten-block vicinity of his studio. For his project entitled The Liar, The Copy of the Liar (1997) Alÿs created small images of suited men inspired by the commercial sign painters of Mexico City, and subsequently commissioned from them larger versions in their own styles. In this process Alÿs deferred authorship into a semantic chain. Hovering between the banal and the surreal, these works have an uncanny theme, of individuals observed in situations that defy explanation....


Angel Card, Abraham  

Karen Cordero Reiman

(b El Oro, nr Acambaro, Mar 7, 1905; d Mexico City, Oct 27, 1924).

Mexican painter and teacher of Scottish descent. He studied briefly at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City, where in 1921 he met the painter Manuel Rodríguez Lozano, who introduced him to Mexican avant-garde artists. Under Rodríguez Lozano’s tutelage he joined the “brigade” of teachers who trained primary and secondary school students using Adolfo Best Maugard’s method of teaching drawing based on the motifs of popular art. Angel developed a pictorial style characterized by a deliberately naive drawing technique and vivid, unnaturalistic colors; he typically made portraits of friends and relatives superimposed on backdrops of village scenes or simplified rural landscapes. A commemorative book published shortly after his death featured texts by major artistic and literary figures of the period, including Rodríguez Lozano, Diego Rivera, José Juan Tablada, and Xavier Villaurrutia, and revealed the process of romantic mythification of Angel, characterizing him as a “pure popular painter” and even inventing for him exotic Argentinian origins....


Bandurek, Wolf  

Ticio Escobar

(b Dobrzyn, 1906; d Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1972).

Paraguayan painter and engraver of Polish birth. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Poznań and the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in Düsseldorf. As a result of Nazi persecution he settled in Paraguay in 1936, where his work was particularly influential on the development of late 20th-century art. Although he was not an innovator from the point of view of form, he introduced into painting a dramatic content drawn from Paraguayan history and comment on social injustice and recent wars, thus giving new life to a school of painting that until then had been bucolic. His somber and moving oil paintings had vitality and an impassioned expressiveness. In the late 1930s and early 1940s this intensity of expression in his work provided a useful complement to the formal clarity of Jaime Bestard; both helped to undermine the prevailing academicism of art in Paraguay. Bandurek’s black-and-white wood engravings confirm the drama in his work and his persisting social concern. They were published in Buenos Aires in ...


Bitti, Bernardo  

Annick Benavides

[Bitti, Aloisio Bernardino Giovanni Demócrito]

(b Camerino, the Marches, 1548; d Lima, 1610).

Italian painter and sculptor active in Peru. One of seven children born to Pablo and Cornelia Bitti, Bernardo Bitti commenced formal training in the arts at the age of 14 in Camerino and completed his training in Rome. He was inducted into the Society of Jesus as a Coadjutor Brother on 2 May 1568 at the age of 20. The General of the Society of Jesus, Everardo Mecurián, assigned Bitti to the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1573 at the request of the Jesuit Provincial in Peru, Diego Bracamante, who believed religious imagery would facilitate the Catholic indoctrination of indigenous Andeans at missions. After spending 14 months in Seville, Bitti arrived in Lima on 31 May 1575 and worked there for 8 years. He subsequently embarked on a peripatetic career decorating the interiors of Jesuit sites in Cuzco, Juli, La Paz, Sucre, Potosí, Arequipa, and Ayacucho.

Bitti created the main and lateral altarpieces of the Jesuit provisional church of S Pedro in Lima with the assistance of the Andalusian Jesuit artist Pedro de Vargas (...


Blanes Viale, Pedro  

Angel Kalenberg

(b Mercedes, May 19, 1878; d Montevideo, Jun 22, 1926).

Uruguayan painter. He first studied painting and drawing as a child with the Catalan painter Miguel Jaume i Bosch (1844–1900). As an adolescent he moved with his family to Spain, where he studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid and frequented the workshop of Santiago Rusiñol. After studying in Paris with Benjamin Constant, he visited Italy and Mallorca, where he first developed his talents as a landscape painter before returning briefly to Uruguay in 1899. During another prolonged visit to Europe from 1902 to 1907 he enthusiastically studied the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Lucien Simon, Henri Martin, Claude Monet, and James Abbott McNeill Whistler. After his return to Montevideo in 1907 he painted shimmering Impressionist-influenced landscapes such as Palma de Mallorca (1915; Montevideo, Mus. N. A. Visuales) and treated local rural and urban scenes in which he established himself as a remarkable colorist (see ...


Boggio, Emilio  

María Antonia González-Arnal

revised by Leyla Dunia

(b Caracas, May 21, 1857; d Auvers-sur-Oise, Jun 7, 1920).

Venezuelan painter, active also in France. Dedicated to Impressionism, with his knowledge and his work he deeply influenced the generation of the Círculo de Bellas Artes de Caracas. He traveled to France in 1864 and studied at the Lycée Michelet in Paris until 1870. He returned to Caracas in 1873 and dedicated himself to the family business, but his artistic interests made him start a second journey to Paris in 1877 to study with Jean-Paul Laurens and William Bouguereau at the private Académie Julian. From his early years, he was interested in photography, which later had an influence on his painting. In 1885 he traveled to Italy with the French Impressionist painter Henry Martin, who expanded his interest in the atmospheric qualities of his painting. In 1889, Boggio was awarded the bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris where he participated in the Venezuelan pavilion with Arturo Michelena. From 1887 to 1891 he collaborated with different newspapers of the time as caricaturist. In the decade from 1890 to 1900, the Modern Style influenced his choice of subjects, including allegorical references. In these years, he also painted religious themes such as ...


Bollar, Gorki  

Uruguayan, 20th century, male.

Active in the Netherlands.

Born 1944, in Montevideo.

Painter. Figure compositions.

Gorki Bollar left Uruguay for London in 1966 and later settled in Amsterdam. He took part in the Salon International d'Art Naïf in Paris founded during the 1980s.

Although authentically naive in approach, Bollar has a strong sense of the construction of perspective in space and of the relief of forms. His use of colour is discreet and harmonious and he tells pleasing stories such as the ...


Bravo, Claudio  

Milan Ivelić

(b Valparaíso, Nov 8, 1936; d Taroudant, Jun 4, 2011).

Chilean painter and draftsman. He studied painting in Santiago in 1947–1948 with the Chilean painter Miguel Venegas, then lived in Spain from 1961 to 1972 before moving to Tangiers. His entire artistic career was conducted outside his native country.

Bravo initially worked as a portrait painter, supporting himself in Spain through commissions, which also introduced him into Spanish high society. His sitters included General Franco and his family. Later, while still in Spain, he began painting packages and wrapped objects in a polished, highly detailed realist style bordering on Photorealism but consciously related to the Spanish still-life tradition represented by Zurbarán and Velázquez, whose work he greatly admired. He remarked that he hoped to be regarded as one of the few 20th-century painters to have respected the work of the Old Masters and learned from it.

Working with both oil paints and pastels, after moving to Morocco, Bravo combined objects with human figures in interior spaces, displaying perfect control of the luminous atmosphere and the strict perspective. While his technical facility was undeniable, the ambiguity of his subject matter and the mysteriousness of his settings, tempering the clarity of the figures and objects, led him beyond the mere reproduction of appearances. Unlike the Photorealists, who tended to present their images as straightforward visual evidence, Bravo used his motifs as a way of dealing with obsessions such as narcissism or the random meeting of figures unconnected in time. An illusory and confusing interplay between reality and representation is central to Bravo’s work, leaving the spectator unsure whether what he is seeing lies inside or outside the painting....


Briceño, Trixie  

Monica E. Kupfer

[Beatrix ; Beatriz]

(b London, Sept 16, 1911; d Sun City, AZ, Nov 4, 1985).

Panamanian painter of English birth. She was one of the first women to make an important contribution to art in Panama, where she arrived in the 1950s. She began her studies in Panama under Juan Manuel Cedeño and continued in Brazil from 1958 to 1960. Her naive style, characterized by a strong sense of geometry and flat, bright colors, was unique in Panamanian art. Giving free rein to her imagination, she painted magical and humorous compositions that bordered on Surrealism, such as Adam’s Fruit Shop (1977; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.), at times showing the influence of European artists such as Paul Klee, Joan Miró, and René Magritte.

Gómez Sicre, J. Beatriz Briceño of Panama. Washington, DC, Pan Amer. Un., 1969. Exhibition catalog.Dutary, A. Homenaje a Trixie Briceño. Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp., 1982. Exhibition catalog.Wolfschoon, E. Las manifestaciones artísticas en Panamá. Panama City, 1983, pp. 87, 322–333, 481–484....


Buvelot, Abram-Louis  

Jocelyn Fraillon Gray

(b Morges, Vaud, Mar 3, 1814; d Melbourne, Victoria, May 30, 1888).

Swiss painter, lithographer, and photographer, active in Brazil and Australia. He attended a drawing school in Lausanne, where his teacher may have been Marc-Louis Arlaud (1772–1845), and is thought to have spent some time with the landscape painter Camille Flers in Paris c. 1836 en route to Bahia (Salvador), Brazil. In 1840 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, where he established himself as a painter of local views and exhibited with the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes, Rio. His Brazilian landscapes, of which the View of Gamboa (1852; Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.) is an example, received critical acclaim for their vivacious lighting. As a photographer he fulfilled commissions in daguerreotype for Emperor Peter II, and with the figure painter Auguste Moreau he produced a set of eighteen lithographs, Picturesque Rio de Janeiro, published in 1843–1844. From 1852 to 1864 he worked as a portrait photographer in Switzerland and from ...


Carrington, Leonora  

Jorge Alberto Manrique

(b Clayten Green, nr Chorley, Lancashire, April 6, 1917; d Mexico City, May 25, 2011).

Mexican painter, sculptor and writer of English birth. In 1936 she travelled to London, where she studied under Amédée Ozenfant and in 1937 met Max(imilian) Ernst, with whom she became involved artistically and romantically, leading to her association with Surrealism. They moved to Paris together in 1937. At the outbreak of World War II, Ernst was interned as an enemy alien, and Carrington escaped to Spain, where she was admitted to a private clinic after having a nervous breakdown; she later recounted the experience in her book En bas (1943). After marrying the Mexican poet Renato Leduc in 1941 (a marriage of convenience), she spent time in New York before settling in Mexico in 1942, devoting herself to painting. There she and Remedios Varo developed an illusionistic Surrealism combining autobiographical and occult symbolism. Having divorced Leduc in 1942, in 1946 she married the Hungarian photographer Imre Weisz.

Carrington remained committed to Surrealism throughout her career, filling her pictures with strange or fantastic creatures in surprising situations, notably horses, which appear in ...


Charlot, (Louis Henri) Jean  

Esther Acevedo

(b Paris, Feb 8, 1898; d Honolulu, Mar 20, 1979).

French painter and printmaker, active in Mexico and the USA. As a child he was surrounded by the nostalgic presence of Mexico, as one of his great-grandmothers was Mexican, and one of his grandfathers had collected Pre-Columbian art. He specialized in murals, painting his first for the Exposition Saint-Jean, an exhibition of liturgical art at the Louvre in 1920. In 1921 he settled in Mexico to take up an offer of work from Alfredo Ramos Martínez at the open-air school in Coyoacán. He worked in Mexico City as one of Diego Rivera’s assistants on the mural The Creation (1923), executing two important murals of his own in the city during the same period: the Conquest of Tenochtitlán (1922–1923) in the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria, and Porters and Washerwomen (1923) in the building of the Secretaría de Educación Pública. Charlot collaborated on the magazine Mexican Folkways...


Chartrand, Esteban  

Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Limonar, Matanzas, 1840; d New York, 1884).

Cuban painter. He and his brother Phillipe (d 1889) were trained in France. He was the most fashionable Cuban landscape painter of the late 19th century, especially among the landowners of Matanzas. Under the influence of Corot he painted Cuba’s landscape and flora in great detail but in dark tones that do not correspond to tropical colors and light, rendering light and form in terms of tonal values rather than by color and drawing. Landscape (1880; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.) typically represents the peasant bohío (“hut”), royal palms, and a brook against a pastel-shaded sky highly uncharacteristic of the tropics.

Ramos, D. “Tres maestros del paisaje: E. Chartrand, V. Sanz Carta, y A. Rodríguez Morey.” Anales de la Academia nacional de artes y letras (Jun 1940–Sept 1941).Nuñez, M. L. “Retratos de Fayum, pintura europea.” Museo Nacional de Cuba: Pintura, 8–13. Havana and Leningrad, 1978.Rigol, J....


Concha, Andrés de la  

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

revised by Alessia Frassani

(fl. 1568–1612; d Mexico, 1612).

Spanish painter and architect, active in New Spain (Mexico). In 1568, he went from Spain to Mexico, possibly because he was commissioned to paint the principal retable of the church of Yanhuitlan, Oaxaca State, with the Annunciation, the Adoration of the Shepherds, the Adoration of the Magi, the Presentation in the Temple, the Descent from the Cross, the Resurrection, the Ascension, Pentecost, the Last Judgement, the Immaculate Conception, St. Jerome, Mary Magdalene, St. Luke, and St. Dominic (1575–1579). These retablo paintings reflect his style as a Mannerist painter of the Seville school, particularly that of Luis de Vargas.

Between 1570 and 1575, Andrés de la Concha worked in Oaxaca city’s cathedral. In 1580–1581 he collaborated with Simón Pereyns on the retable (destr., paintings untraced) of the high altar in the monastery of Teposcolula, Oaxaca State; and in this period he also worked in the church of Coixtlahuaca, Oaxaca State, on paintings for the retable, of which eleven panels survive: three dedicated to the ...


Costa, Olga  

Julieta Ortiz Gaitán

(b Leipzig, 1913; d Guanajuato, Jun 28, 1993).

Mexican painter of Russian descent. She went to Mexico in 1925 and attended the Academia de San Carlos, Mexico City (1933–1936), where she met the painter José Chávez Morado, whom she married. In 1941 she co-founded the Galería Espiral, and in 1943 she founded the Sociedad de Arte Moderno, one of the first galleries to promote foreign artists in Mexico. From 1945 she exhibited regularly at the Galería de Arte Mexicano, Mexico City. Costa painted costumbrista subjects, depicting regional customs, as well as still lifes, portraits, and landscapes. Her style was traditionalist, without being folkloric in a popular manner. Her best-known work is perhaps the Fruit Seller (1951; Mexico City, Mus. A. Mod.). From 1966 she lived in Guanajuato, where she played an active role in local artistic activities. In April 1993 the Museo-Casa Olga Costa–José Chávez Morado was opened in León, Guanajuato.

O’Gorman, J. and others. ...


Dangel, Miguel von  

Elida Salazar

(b Bayreuth, Sept 26, 1946).

Venezuelan painter and sculptor of German birth. He arrived in Venezuela in 1948 and in 1963 began his studies at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas “Cristóbal Rojas” in Caracas. His densely composed work incorporated various objects such as stuffed animals, skins, crucifixes, and mirrors, which he used to develop contemplation of the contemporary, with symbolic reference to what is specifically American and to the sacred nature of art. His use of various materials, in conjunction with animal and vegetable forms, reveals the mythological landscape in which Von Dangel ultimately found expression. He represented Venezuela at the São Paulo Biennale in Brazil in 1983, and his work was included in various international touring group exhibitions. He held various one-man shows in Caracas, outstanding among which was the Batalla de San Romano, held at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo in Caracas in 1990.

Diccionario de artes visuales en Venezuela. Caracas, 1982.Stein, A....


Darié, Sandú  

Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...


Debret, Jean-Baptiste  

Roberto Pontual

(b Paris, April 18, 1768; d Paris, June 28, 1848).

French painter and draughtsman, active in Brazil. When very young he accompanied his cousin, Jacques-Louis David, on a trip to Italy from which he returned in 1785. He then enrolled in the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris, initially following parallel studies in civil engineering but soon devoting himself to painting. Between 1798 and 1814 he entered several of the annual Paris Salons with historical or allegorical paintings, Neo-classical in both spirit and form, for instance Napoleon Decorating a Russian Soldier at Tilsit (1808; Versailles, Château). He also collaborated at this time with the architects Charles Percier and Pierre-François Fontaine on decorative works. With the fall of Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte I, whom he greatly admired, he agreed to take part in the French artistic mission which left for Brazil in 1816. He stayed there longer than the rest of the group, returning to France only in ...