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British, 20th century, male.

Born 1941, in Sheffield.

Sculptor, assemblage artist. Multimedia, artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

Victor Burgin attended the Royal Academy of Art in London from 1962 to 1965 and Yale School of Art and Architecture from 1965 to 1967. He taught for a number of years at the Film and Photography School of Central London Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster). After spending 13 years in the USA, he returned to London and taught at Goldsmiths College. In addition to his work as an artist, he has also published several books on the theory of art. He is acknowledged as one of the driving forces behind the British photography school founded on semiology and psychoanalysis (rather than on sociology or the history of ideas)....


German, 20th–21st century, female.

Born 1961, in Karlsruhe.

Active in Amsterdam.

Installation artist, sculptor. Artists’ books

Conceptual Art.

Yvonne Dröge Wendel grew up in southern Germany and received her MA in education at the Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster in 1986. At age 26 she moved to the Netherlands to attend the Audio Visual Department of the Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam until ...


British, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in London.

Painter (mixed media), sculptor, photographer. Artists' books.

Conceptual Art, Land Art.

After studying in London at St Martin's from 1966 to 1968, Hamish Fulton went on to study photography in 1969. Fulton is interested in landscape and has much in common with Land Art, although his approach is quite different. Unlike Richard Long - with whom he travelled in South America - Fulton does not intervene on site. He builds his work around the physical impression that a space leaves on the body when walking, first in timeless photographs with brief captions and then, from ...


French, 20th century, male.

Active also active in the USA.

Born 29 June 1938, in Paris.

Sculptor, installation artist. Artists' books.

Conceptual Art.

Michel Gérard studied sculpture from 1954 to 1957 (some sources, such as Larousse, give 1975 to 1981) at the École des Arts Appliqués as a pupil of Zwobada. He later met Étienne-Martin, and then Stahly, with whom he worked for the Brussels Exposition Internationale of ...


French, 20th century, male.

Born 13 May 1927, in Lyons.

Painter, sculptor, installation artist. Artists' books.

Conceptual Art, Art Narratif.

Paul-Armand Gette trained in chemistry, botany, zoology and crystallography at the University in Lyons which did not prepare him for a specifically artistic career. However, while working as a scientist, he began to paint in ...


Horacio Safons

(b Buenos Aires, Jan 14, 1915; d Barcelona, Oct 14, 1965).

Argentine painter, sculptor, performance artist, conceptual artist, poet, and illustrator. After studying in Buenos Aires at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes and with Cecilia Marcovich and Tomás Maldonado, he quickly established a reputation for his scandalous views, attracting extreme disapproval and equally strong support. After delivering a lecture at the Juan Cristóbal bookshop, Buenos Aires, entitled “Alberto Greco y los pájaros” he was briefly imprisoned for his “Communism and subversive acts.” On his release in the same year he travelled to Paris on a French government grant, selling drawings and watercolors in the cafés and studying painting with Fernand Léger and printmaking with Johnny Friedlaender. Between 1956 and 1958 he lived in São Paulo, where he became aware of Art informel; he painted in this style in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Glusberg 1985, 284–285).

As early as 1959, when he had returned from São Paulo to Buenos Aires, Greco had expressed his corrosive vision of society through the form of his work. In his shows he exhibited tree trunks and rags for cleaning window gratings or floors. He moved again to Paris in ...


American, 20th – 21st century, female.

Born 1955, in New York.

Sculptor, painter, collage artist, installation artist, photographer, draughtswoman. Artists' books.

Conceptual Art.

Roni Horn studied at the Rhode Island School of Design in 1975 and at Yale in 1978. She lives and works in New York, where she teaches at the School of Arts, Columbia University....


Czechoslovak, 20th century, male.

Sculptor of assemblages.

Conceptual Art.

Matej Kren produced Idiom, a sort of stack of mirrors and books stretching from the floor to the ceiling (which only the mirrors could read) inspired by the work of Jorge Luis Borges. In 1922, the Lara Vincy gallery in Paris mounted an exhibition of his work....


American, 20th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Born 9 September 1928, in Hartford (Connecticut); died 8 April 2007, in New York.

Painter (gouache), installation artist, sculptor, engraver, draughtsman, illustrator. Artists’ books.

Conceptual Art, Minimal Art.

From 1945 to 1949 Sol LeWitt was a student at the University of Syracuse, New York. In 1951–1952 he did military service in Japan and Korea. By 1953 he was studying in New York at Cartoons Illustrators, which later became the School of Visual Arts. He worked for the magazine ...


French, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1946, in Carcassonne.

Sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, illustrator, photographer, film maker.

Conceptual Art.

Patrick Raynaud studied cinema and has produced and directed films.

In 1972 he directed a series of films including one on Robert and another on Sonia Delaunay. He also produced children's books and a series of graphic compositions. From ...


Canadian, 20th–21st century, male.

Active in USA 1964–1972.

Born 10 December 1928, in Toronto.

Painter, sculptor, collage artist, lithographer, video installation artist. Artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

Michael James Snow was a student at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto from 1948 and graduated in 1953. He spent time in Europe in 1954–1955. He also made a name for himself as a jazz musician. He mainly chooses the most ordinary subjects and objects from everyday life, which he empties of their usual significance in order to transmute them by making their place in space and time perceptible. His early works were figurative, interiors and figures. However, from 1961, he particularly exploited the theme of the ...


Dutch, 20th century, male.

Active in Germany.

Born 1931, in Alkmaar.

Painter, collage artist, sculptor, installation artist. Artists' books.

Visual Poetry, Conceptual Art.

Zero Group.

Herman de Vries initially studied horticulture and subsequently worked for an association for the protection of plants and the Institute for the Applied Research of Nature in Arnhem. At the same time he began his artistic training, at the age of 22. From ...


American, 20th century, male.

Also active in the Netherlands.

Born 1940, in New York.

Sculptor, installation artist. Artists’ books.

Conceptual Art.

At the very beginning of his career, in New York, he produced paintings on his favourite subject—the propeller. He then developed, in a rectangular format, a pictorial reflection on the geometric figure of the rectangle, in various formats and colours. During the same period he staged works on location in the tradition of Land Art—notably craters, produced by explosions. He said: ‘I realised that I was preoccupied with the principle of explosions, whilst forgetting their characteristics’....