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Arakawa, Shusaku  

Japanese, 20th century, male.

Active in the USA since 1961.

Born 6 July 1936, in Nagoya (Aichi Prefecture).


Conceptual Art.

Neo-Dadaist Organisers group.

Shusaku Arakawa studied medicine and mathematics at Tokyo University (1954-1958) and art at Musashino Art University, Tokyo. He began his career in the 1960s when he concerned himself with the representation of impossible space, which corresponded to Marcel Duchamp’s scientific interest in the fourth dimension. In 1960 he was involved in anti-art and Neo-Dadaism in Tokyo and produced his first happenings....


Arp, Hans  

Greta Stroeh

[Jean] (Peter Wilhelm)

(b Strassburg, Germany [now Strasbourg, France], Sept 16, 1886; d Basle, Switzerland, June 7, 1966).

French sculptor, painter, collagist, printmaker, and poet of German birth. The son of a German father and French Alsatian mother, he developed a cosmopolitan outlook from an early age and as a mature artist maintained close contact with the avant-garde throughout Europe. He was a pioneer of abstract art and one of the founders of Dada in Zurich, but he also participated actively in both Surrealism and Constructivism. While he prefigured junk art and the Fluxus movement in his incorporation of waste material, it was through his investigation of biomorphism and of chance and accident that he proved especially influential on later 20th-century art in liberating unconscious creative forces.

Following a brief period at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Strasbourg (1900–01), Arp received instruction from 1901 from a friend and neighbour, the painter and printmaker Georges Ritleng (1875–1972). He then attended the Kunstschule in Weimar (1904–7) and the Académie Julian in Paris (...


Arp, Hans, Later Jean  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 16 September 1886, in Strasbourg; died 7 June 1966, in Basel.

Collage artist, engraver, sculptor, draughtsman, illustrator, poet.


Der Moderne Bund, Dadaist groups in Zurich and Cologne, Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben, Paris Surrealist Group, Abstraction-Création.

Hans Arp joined the École des Arts et Métiers in Strasbourg in 1902, at the age of 16. In 1903 he began painting and contributed to a local magazine. In 1904 he made his first trip to Paris. From 1905 to 1907 he studied under Ludwig von Hoffmann at the fine arts academy in Weimar, where he attended modern art exhibitions. He returned to Strasbourg, which his family then left for Weggis, on the edge of the Lac des Quatre Cantons in Switzerland. Between 1908 and 1910 he made a second trip to Paris and worked for a time at the Académie Julian. In Weggis he completed his first Abstract compositions and learned the art of modelling. In 1911 he co-founded the group...


Bailly, Alice  

(b Geneva, Feb 25, 1872; d Lausanne, Jan 1, 1938).

Swiss painter and multimedia artist . From 1890/91 she studied under Hugues Bovy (1841–1903) and Denise Sarkissof at the Ecole d’Art in Geneva. A travel scholarship enabled her to study in Munich for a year. From 1904 until the outbreak of World War I Bailly lived in Paris, where she associated with Cubist artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Fernand Léger, Marie Laurencin and Sonia Lewitska (1882–1914). From 1905 to 1926 she exhibited regularly at the Salon d’Automne. From 1906 to 1910 her work was influenced by Fauvism, and from 1910 she became interested in Cubism and Futurism: Equestrian Fantasy with Pink Lady (1913; Zurich, Gal. Strunskaja) is reminiscent of the work of Gino Severini or Franz Marc in its rhythmic movement and planar fragmentation of horses and riders into coloured patterns. Other paintings of this period that are also indebted to these movements include ...


Baumann, Fritz  

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Born 3 May 1886, in Basel; died 9 October 1942.

Painter, sculptor.

Dadaism, Neo-Constructivism.

Groups: Artistes Radicaux, Das Neue Leben.

From 1917, Baumann exhibited at the Galerie Dada in Zurich and in 1918 he became a member of the group The New Life...



Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active from 1949 active in France.

Born 18 July 1935, in Naples, to an Irish mother and a Swiss-French father.

Painter (mixed media), installation artist.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus, Conceptual Art, Mail Art.

Ben spent periods in Turkey, Egypt and Greece before settling in Nice in 1949. At the age of 16 he broke off his studies, working in a bookshop and then becoming a second-hand goods dealer. However, Ben never ceased to contemplate the legacy created by Marcel Duchamp and the consequences of the ...


Brecht, George  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 7 March 1926, in Halfway (Oregon); died 5 December 2008, in Cologne.

Painter, sculptor. Multimedia.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

From 1946 to 1950, George Brecht studied physical sciences at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy & Science, and from 1950 to 1955, he trained as a chemist. He met John Cage in ...


Burssens, Gaston  

Belgian, 20th century, male.

Born 1896, in Termonde; died 1965, in Antwerp.

Painter, poet.


Primarily an Expressionist poet, Gaston Burssens wrote several collections of poems. His painting was Expressionist at the outset, later developing into Dadaistic and Surrealist figuration.


Cage, John  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 1912, in Los Angeles; died 1992.

Painter, printmaker.

Neo-Dadaism, Fluxus.

John Cage is best known as an avant-garde composer and musician. As a member of the Fluxus group he took part in many of their happenings and was therefore at the heart of various artistic activities that extended into the visual arts. His introduction of the notion of chance into music coincided with the same approach in painting. He also used painting and print making as a means of expression and in Milan in ...


Cangiullo, Francesco  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1884, in Naples; died 1977, in Livorno (Tuscany).

Poet, draughtsman, painter, watercolourist, sculptor.

Dadaism, Futurism.

Francesco Cangiullo was the elder brother of Pasquale Cangiullo. He participated in the Dada activities at the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich in around 1919. His friends Marinetti and Balla involved him in Futurist activities. He wrote theoretical works about Futurist theatre and became artistic director of the Compania del Teatro della Sorpresa. He was also a poet, and in ...


Cesariny (de Vasconcelos), Mário  

Ruth Rosengarten

(b Lisbon, Aug 9, 1923).

Portuguese painter and poet. He studied fine art and music and in 1942 took part in the meetings at the Café Herminius of a group of students, including Cruzeiro Seixas and Fernando de Azevedo, engaged in Dada activities. His writings for Júlio Pomar’s art page in the newspaper Tarde in 1945 called for the politicization of art. In 1947 he was one of the founder-members of the Lisbon Surrealist Group but left, forming a dissident group called The Surrealists in 1948. Although this group was disbanded after two exhibitions (1949 and 1950), both Cesariny and Cruzeiro Seixas retained a surrealizing tendency in their work.

Although better known as a poet, Cesariny continued to be involved with the visual arts. Psychic automatism and the use of varied materials including found objects played an important part in the genesis of his images. His poem-objects are quirky and humorous, if somewhat derivative of French Surrealism....


Charchoune, Serge  

Patricia Delettre


(b Buguruslan, Aug 4, 1888; d Villeneuve-Saint Georges, France, Nov 24, 1975).

Russian painter active mainly in France. After being rejected by the Academy of Fine Arts in Kazan’, Charchoune moved in 1909 to Moscow, where he was taught by Ilya Machov (1881–1944), discovered French Cubism and met avant-garde artists such as Mikhail Larionov, Natal’ya Goncharova and Vladimir Tatlin. In 1910 he was called up for three years’ military service, but he deserted in 1912, moving to Berlin and then Paris, where he became part of the informal Ecole de Paris. By this stage he was initiating himself into the rigours of Cubism, studying under Jean Metzinger and, above all, Henri Le Fauconnier, whose influence is apparent in paintings such as Watermill at Ploumanac’h (1913; see Creuze, pl. 39). Charchoune went to Barcelona in 1914 to avoid involvement in World War I, and there rediscovered the ornamental through seeing Spanish-Moorish art, notably geometric patterns in ceramics and tiles; his enthusiasm for these is seen in such works as ...


Charchoune, Serge  

Russian, 20th century, male.

Active in France.

Born 4 August 1888 in Samara; died 24 November 1975, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), draughtsman. Still-lifes, landscapes.


Dada groups in Berlin and Paris.

After a childhood spent in the western part of the Ural mountains in a small town on the banks of the Kinel, a tributary of the Volga, Serge Charchoune became a mediocre student and had no interest in succeeding his father who owned a fabric store. Wishing instead to devote his time to pictorial art, he entered a competition for admission to the school of fine arts in Kazan, which he failed. He left for Moscow in 1909 where he worked at several Academies, meeting Mikhail Fedorovich Larionov and Natalya Gontcharova. He also discovered the Impressionists at the Tretiakov Gallery, particularly Claude Monet. Opting for desertion rather than doing his military service, he fled to Berlin and then to Paris in 1912 where he attended the Académie de la Palette’s and was taught by Henri Le Fauconnier. Since he was not a naturalised Frenchman, he was not called up for military service when war was declared in 1914 and he left for Spain. He settled in Barcelona, where he met Francis Picabia, and came into contact with the Dada Movement (which had no direct influence on his pictorial art although it did influence his writings, particularly when he returned to France in 1920). Back in Paris he was an active member of the...


Chirico, Giorgio de  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 10 July 1888, in Volos (Thessaly); died 20 November 1978, in Rome.

Painter, illustrator, sculptor writer. Scenes with figures, portraits, nudes, animals, landscapes, flowers, still-lifes. Stage sets.

Dadaism, Surrealism, Pittura Metafisica (Metaphysical Painting).

Les Artistes Italiens de Paris.

Giorgio de Chirico’s father, Evaristo, was originally from Palermo, and his mother, Gemma, from Genoa. He was born in Thessaly in Greece, where his father worked as a railway engineer – one of those ‘19th-century European engineers, bearded and powerful’, as Giorgio later described him. This Mediterranean background was an important factor in Giorgio’s development, and classical order and the harsh light of Attica continued to influence his vision, as did his classical education....


Citroen, Paul  

Erika Billeter

(b Berlin, Dec 15, 1896; d Wassenaar, March 13, 1983).

Dutch photographer, Photomontagist and painter, active also in Germany. He belonged to the Dada group in Berlin and was a friend of George Grosz, Raoul Hausmann, John Heartfield and Erwin Blumenfeld. From 1922 to 1925 he was associated with the Bauhaus in Weimar, producing during this period the photocollage Metropolis (1923; Leiden, Rijksuniv.), the single work for which he remains best known, and which has become a classic image of the 20th-century city. His period at the Bauhaus clearly helped shape his photographic style, his photomontages in particular betraying the influence of both Dada and Constructivism. In 1927 he moved to the Netherlands, founding and then teaching at the Nieuwe Kunstschool in Amsterdam (1933–7). From 1935 to 1940, and again from 1945 to 1960, he was professor of drawing and painting at the Academie voor Beeldenden Kunsten in The Hague. He continued to work as both a painter and photographer without ever recapturing the fame that he had enjoyed with his work of the 1920s....


Citroen, Paul  

Dutch, 20th century, male.

Born 15 December 1896, in Berlin; died 13 March 1983, in Wassenaar (The Hague).

Painter, collage artist, photomontage artist.

Dadaism, Constructivism.

Having studied at a school of painting and fine arts in Berlin, Paul Citroen abandoned painting in 1914 to become a bookseller. In ...


Copley, William Nelson, Called Bill  

American, 20th century, male.

Born 24 January 1919, in New York; died 8 May 1996, in Miami (Florida).

Painter. Figures, scenes with figures.

Dadaism, Bad Painting.

William Nelson Copley studied at the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, in 1946 and then at the University of Yale. He took part in the Italy campaign as a soldier in the American army. At the same time as becoming a painter, between 1947 and 1948 he created the Copley Galleries in Beverly Hills where he exhibited the work of Man Ray, Max Ernst, Magritte, André Masson, Tanguy, Picabia and Duchamp, and held memorable parties spending the family inheritance and building up an impressive Surrealist collection. Between 1951 and 1964 he made frequent, long trips to Paris. He painted there and took part in several group exhibitions. After 1964 he lived and worked in New York and in Roxbury in Connecticut. He signed his work ...


Coppee, Philippe Henri  

Belgian, 20th – 21st century, male.

Born 1949, in Gosselies.

Painter, draughtsman, designer, sculptor, engraver.

Coppee trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. His works, some of which exhibit the hallmarks of a Dadaist approach, retain a naive spontaneity. He has also produced frescoes and stained glass windows....


Crotti, Jean  

Ronald Alley

(b Bulle, Switzerland, April 24, 1878; d Paris, Jan 30, 1958).

French painter of Swiss birth. From 1901 he spent almost all his life in Paris, studying there at the Académie Julian. His early work was influenced first by Impressionism, then by Fauvism and Art Nouveau, and included a number of rhythmically stylized female heads in pastel colours, followed from c. 1910 by a more strongly constructed Cubist phase. He spent two years in New York (1914–16), where he met (Henri-Robert-)Marcel Duchamp—whose sister Suzanne Duchamp he married in 1919—and Francis Picabia, and became involved in the Dada movement until 1921; his Dada paintings and reliefs are delicate and poetic and often combine the forms of objects, such as mechanical instruments, with words and typography, as in his portrait of Thomas Edison (1920; London, Tate).

In the 1920s, seeking to create a visionary art that would transport the artist and viewer into unknown worlds expressive of the aspirations of the soul, Crotti began to produce pictures in a variety of styles, sometimes completely abstract, like ...


Crotti, Jean  

Swiss, 20th century, male.

Active in France and from 1927 also naturalised there.

Born 24 April 1878, in Bulle (Fribourg); died 30 January 1958, in Paris.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, sculptor. Designs for stained glass.


Puteaux Group.

Jean Crotti first studied at the school of decorative arts in Munich, then on his arrival in Paris in 1901 he enrolled at the Académie Julian. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants from 1907 onwards and was a member of the board of the Salon d'Automne from 1909 to 1942. The works from his earliest youth were influenced by Impressionism and Fauvism. While he was in New York, from 1914 to 1916, he knew Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia. On his return to Paris in 1916 he brought news of her brother to Suzanne Duchamp, whom he married in 1919. He had strong ties to the Puteaux Group, which revolved around the other brother, Jacques Villon. From 1915 to 1921, under the influence of Duchamp and Picabia, he was actively involved in the Dada movement. The works dating from this period include the ...