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Arcimboldo [Arcimboldi], Giuseppe  

Thomas Dacosta Kaufmann

(b ?Milan, 1527; d Milan, July 11, 1593).

Italian painter, draughtsman and tapestry designer, active also in Austria and Bohemia. He came from a distinguished Milanese family that included a number of archbishops of the city; his father was the painter Biagio Arcimboldo. Giuseppe is first documented in 1549, working with his father for Milan Cathedral; he received payments until 1558 for supplying paintings, designs for an altar baldacchino and stained-glass windows for the cathedral: the Story of Lot and the Life of St Catherine in the south transept windows are usually attributed to him. He collaborated with Giuseppe Meda in designing the gonfalone of St Ambrose in Milan, probably sometime soon after 1558. In 1556 he received a commission to paint the south wall and vault of the south transept of Monza Cathedral, also in Lombardy, a work that must have been completed by 1562. Portions of a fresco of the Tree of Jesse on the south wall there can be attributed to him. In ...


Baldung [Grien], Hans  

Christiane Andersson

(b ?Schwäbisch Gmünd, 1484 or 1485; d Strassburg [now Strasbourg, France], 1545).

German painter, printmaker, draughtsman and stained-glass designer. Such contemporaries as Jean Pélerin (De artificiali perspectiva, 1521) and the Alsatian humanist Beatus Rhenanus in 1526 counted him among the greatest artists of his time. In the opinion of specialists today, Baldung’s work places him only half a step behind Grünewald, Dürer and Hans Holbein the younger. A prodigious and imaginative artist of great originality, versatility and passion, Baldung was fascinated with witchcraft and superstition and possessed a desire for novelty of subjects and interpretation that sometimes borders on the eccentric. The new themes he introduced include the supernatural and the erotic. He was the first to show the erotic nature of the Fall in his chiaroscuro woodcut of Adam and Eve (1511; Hollstein, no. 3) and illustrated the successive stages of mating behaviour of horses in his woodcut series of Wild Horses in the forest (1534; Hollstein, nos 238–40); and he is remembered especially for his images of witches. Dürer influenced him only in an early stage but not lastingly. Baldung had a very different sensibility and lacked Dürer’s sense of decorum. Grünewald, whose monumental ...


Bämler, Johannes  

Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, JohannBemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer. He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...


Battaggio [Battagio; da Lodi], Giovanni di Domenico  

Luisa Giordano

(fl second half of the 15th century).

Italian master builder and architect. During 1465 and 1466 his name appears in the wages book of the Ospedale Maggiore of Lodi, for which he produced doors, oculi and windows in terracotta. In 1479 he was appointed engineer of the city of Milan, and in 1489 he is mentioned as ducal engineer. He worked on the fortifications at Biasca in 1481, and in the same year Gian Galeazzo Sforza, Duke of Milan (reg 1476–94), recommended Battaggio and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo to succeed Guinoforte Solari as architect to the Fabbrica del Duomo. Amadeo was appointed, but Battaggio did not manage to enter the conservative Milanese workshop either then or two years later, when Ludovico Sforza proposed him in preference to Hans Niesenberger. In 1484 Conte Manfredo Landi III (d 1491) commissioned Battaggio and Agostino Fonduli to finish and decorate the façade of his palazzo in Piacenza (now the Palazzo dei Tribunali). This work included the window-frames, the string course bearing heads of Roman emperors and scenes of the marine thiasos and the ...



Shirley Millidge

Drawing, sometimes coloured, made specifically as a pattern for a painting, textile or stained-glass panel. It is produced on the same scale as the final work and is usually fairly detailed. The transfer of the image works best if the drawing in the cartoon is of a linear nature and if the composition has crisp, clear outlines.

In painting there are two methods of transferring a cartoon to the support, which may be a canvas, panel or wall. The first is similar to Tracing. The back of the cartoon is rubbed over with chalk; the paper is attached to the support; and the main lines are drawn over with a stylus, thus transferring the chalk from the back of the cartoon to the new support. In the second method, which is called Pouncing, the main lines of the cartoon are pricked through with a needle or stylus, the size and closeness of the holes varying according to the detail in the drawing. Sometimes in order to preserve the drawn cartoon, a supplementary cartoon or ...


Coecke [Cock; Coeck; Coeke; Kock; Koecke] van Aelst [van Alost], Pieter, I  

Jane Campbell Hutchison

(b Aelst [now Aalst], Aug 14, 1502; d Brussels, Dec 6, 1550).

South Netherlandish painter, sculptor, architect and designer of woodcuts, stained glass and tapestries. Son of the Deputy Mayor of the village of Aelst, he was married twice, first to Anna van Dornicke (d 1529), the daughter of the Antwerp painter Jan Mertens, who may have been his teacher; they had two children, Michel van Coecke and Pieter van Coecke II (before 1527–59), the latter of whom became a painter. He later married Mayken Verhulst, herself a painter of miniatures and the mother of three children, Pauwel, Katelijne and Maria; they are shown with their parents in Coecke’s Family Portrait (Zurich, Ksthaus). Mayken is credited with having taught the technique of painting in tempera on cloth to her son-in-law, Pieter Bruegel the elder, who married Maria in 1563. (For family tree see Bruegel family.) Van Mander also stated that Bruegel was Coecke’s apprentice, an allegation no longer universally accepted in view of their substantial stylistic differences. Although the names of other students of Coecke’s, including ...


Coustain, Pierre  

Anne Hagopian van Buren

(b ?Burgundy, c. 1420; d Bruges, before 1502).

Franco-Flemish painter and designer. He is first documented painting stained glass in Philip the Good’s Burgundian castle of Argilly in 1448 and 1452. He was appointed a painter to the Duke in January 1454, just before he worked with Colard le Voleur, Master of the Entertainments at Hesdin, on fountains and other machines for the Banquet of the Pheasant in Lille. During the next years, Coustain was responsible for painting the banners and heralds’ tabards for several court festivities and funerals. He coloured statues of St Philip and St Elizabeth on the ducal palace in Brussels in 1462 and painted a Crucifixion and a Virgin and Child on the panels placed at the head and foot of the Duke’s catafalque in 1467.

Coustain was most active under Charles the Bold. In 1468 he and the Duke’s other painter, Jean Hennecart, were in Bruges, supervising 166 painters and sculptors in the production of the decorations for the meeting of the Order of the Golden Fleece as well as decorations, mechanical devices, props and sets for ...


Crabeth, Wouter  

Wouter Th. Kloek


(fl Gouda, 1559; d Gouda, 1589).

Dutch stained glass designer and draughtsman, brother of Dirck Crabeth. He is presumed to have been taught by Frans Floris and before that probably assisted Dirck. He designed four windows for the St Janskerk in Gouda, in a style that was more spacious and more influenced by Renaissance ideas than was his brother’s. The Adoration of the Shepherds (1564), an attractive composition combining bright colours with an uncomplicated arrangement of figures, owes much to the work of Lambert van Noort, while Heliodorus Driven from the Temple (1566) suggests the inescapable influence of Raphael. Wouter is known to have made a journey on Dirck’s behalf to draw portraits of several donors for the windows, and of his surviving cartoons the portraits (e.g. Margaret of Parma) are the most distinguished. He must also have designed small independent windows. A few drawings have been ascribed to him, of which ...


Salvi d’Andrea  

Francesco Quinterio

(b ?1438; d Florence, 1503).

Italian mason and architect. He is first recorded in Pisa (1462–3) with other Lombard stonecutters employed to carve the marble tracery for the Gothic windows of the Camposanto (cemetery), adjacent to the cathedral. From 1472 he is recorded as a master mason, responsible for the completion of the church of Santo Spirito, Florence (begun 1436), in accordance with the design by Brunelleschi; Salvi was also responsible for the supply of materials and the repair of tools. In 1475 he was appointed principal mason for the outstanding decorative work of the church, including the upper cornice of the nave, the dome and the façade. He constructed a working model of the dome of Santo Spirito, based on the original model by Brunelleschi, for the office of works. This was the first dome in Florence to have a hemispherical external profile. In May 1482 Salvi was commissioned to decorate the interior of the façade of Santo Spirito, and in ...


Arnoult de Nimègue  

Virginia Chieffo Raguin

[Aert de GlaesmakereAert OrtkensArnold of NijmegenArnoult de la PointeArnoult van der SpitsArnt NijmegenArtus van Ort de Nieumegue]

(fl c. 1490; d c. 1536).

South Netherlandish glass painter. He was one of the most productive and influential stained-glass artists of the early 16th century and according to Guicciardini invented the technique of firing enamel colour into glass (see Stained glass, §I, 5). He began his career in Tournai, where his most famous works are the transept windows of the cathedral (c. 1500), over-restored by Jean-Baptiste Capronnier c. 1845. Shortly after 1500 Arnoult was called to Rouen, where he influenced a generation of Norman glass painters. His work is exemplified in windows in Rouen Cathedral; the Crucifixion now in York Minster, England, originally from St Jean, Rouen; and windows in St Vincent or St Godard, Rouen.

Arnoult’s figures have small heads and long bodies swathed in layers of richly worked materials, seen, for example, in a magnificent Tree of Jesse (c. 1506) in St Godard, Rouen, and in the window of ...


Agnolo di Polo  

Francesca Petrucci

(b Florence, 1470; d after 1498).

Italian sculptor. He belonged to a family of well-known artisans; his grandfather Agnolo di Lippo di Polo had worked as an assistant on the stained glass for the cupola of Florence Cathedral and took the name de’ Vetri, sometimes also used by his descendants. Agnolo’s father, Polo di Agnolo, made masks and had his workshop on the Ponte Vecchio, Florence, and his brother Domenico engraved precious stones and medals. Vasari said that Agnolo was a pupil of Verrocchio, adding that ‘he worked very well in clay and has filled the city with works from his hands’. Given the artist’s birth date and that Verrocchio left Florence forever in 1483, Agnolo’s apprenticeship would have been very brief; it is probable that he stayed on in the workshop when it was directed by Lorenzo di Credi.

Two of Agnolo’s works are documented. On 16 August 1495 the Ufficiali della Sapienza commissioned a statue of ...


Dombet [Dombay], Guillaume  

Dominique Thiébaut

(b Cuisery, nr Chalon-sur-Saône; fl 1414; d before Aug 19, 1461).

Burgundian painter. He is first mentioned in Avignon in 1414. His three sons, Aubry, Jacques and Jean (who returned to Cuisery in 1452 or 1453), were also painters. His daughter Peyronnette married a painter from Tournai, Arnolet de Catz (fl 1430–34), who became Guillaume’s associate in 1430. When suffering from a serious illness, Guillaume made his will on 4 December 1458 and requested to be buried in Notre-Dame-la-Principale, Avignon.

Guillaume Dombet appears to have had a flourishing career as a master glazier. He supplied stained-glass windows for the Papal Palace in Avignon (1414), for Aix Cathedral (1415; 1444; 1449), for the synagogue in Aix (1418), for the Franciscan church in Marseille (1425), for Ste Marthe in Tarascon (1432), and for the St Pierre-de-Luxembourg Chapel near the Celestine church in Avignon (1448). At the same time he worked on many altarpieces, often in collaboration with his sons. He received commissions for Aix Cathedral (...


Egeri [Aegeri], Carl [Carle] von  

(b c. 1510; d Zurich, June 14, 1562).

Swiss glass-painter and designer. In 1536 he settled in Zurich, where he later represented his guild on the Greater Council and held other civic honours. In 1542 and 1555 he was commissioned to make stained-glass windows for the Rathaus. These constructed a powerful new civic iconography for post-Reformation Zurich. Banner-bearing citizens, with finely detailed armour and portrait heads, are set against abstract patterned grounds, the whole framed in elaborate arches. Appropriate biblical scenes of loyalty to the state (e.g. Judith and Holofernes) fill the corners. Two impressively drawn lions occupy a roundel (1542) surrounded by the arms of the Zurich domains. In a 1557 window (Zurich, Geshaus Schneggen) of similar design, the lions are instead fully Mannerist, with elongated bodies and twisted mouths. Von Egeri evidently adapted his style to the job; in his Muri Abbey windows (1557) St Martin and St George ride tranquil Paolo Uccello horses, while the large figures are set against blue skies surmounting perfectly rendered landscapes. Many watercolour designs for windows emanated from von Egeri’s prolific workshop in the 1540s; typically, variations on the theme of two figures (usually men) flanking a piece of heraldry (e.g. the ...


Flower, Barnard  

Gordon Campbell

(d 1517).

Stained-glass artist of Dutch or German origin, who settled in England c. 1496 and in 1505 was appointed King’s Glazier. He was responsible for the windows in the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey (destr.). In 1515 he began the windows for the Chapel of King’s College Cambridge, which had been designed by ...


Funk, Hans  

E. Luther

(b Zurich, c. 1470; d Zurich, c. 1539–40).

Stained-glass painter. He was mentioned before 1489 in court records in Zurich, where relatives were also active as stained-glass artists at the beginning of the 16th century. He settled c. 1499–1500 in Berne, living from 1509 in the Kirchgasse (now Münstergasse), and in 1519 he was appointed a member of the cantonal parliament (Grosser Rat). He received many commissions throughout the Swiss Confederation, above all in Berne and Fribourg, and his work exercised a significant influence on the other stained-glass artists of Berne. The earliest records of work by Funk come from the treasury accounts of Fribourg and Berne in 1504 and 1505: in 1505 he executed a series of windows (destr.) depicting the estates of the Alte Orte for Fribourg Town Hall. Earlier than this, however, is a window (c. 1501; Berne, Hist. Mus.) with both a signature and the monogram hfg (‘Hans Funk Glasmaler’). The quality of Funk’s art may be seen in the expressive characterization of the halberdiers holding the arms of Bremgarten and the Confederation, and in the combination of exact detail and liveliness in the fine gold work....


Gontier [Gonthier], Linard  

Patrick M. de Winter

(b ?Troyes, 1565; d ?Troyes, c. 1642).

French glass painter. He was probably a pupil of Nicolas Macadré. Gontier headed a busy workshop in Troyes in which his three sons, Linard Gontier the younger, Nicolas Gontier and Jean Gontier were active. His creations are celebrated for their versatility: the rich, deep hues of religious compositions attained through a mastery of the enamelling technique, and the minutely detailed but ambitious secular scenes. He is recorded as having produced a treatise (lost by the 18th century), which demonstrates his commitment to technique. His better known sacred works were executed for Troyes Cathedral—Credo, 1606; Mystical Wine Press, 1625; Life of St Peter, 1639 (the Immaculate Conception and the Martyrdom of St Stephen, 1624, were transferred there from St Etienne, Troyes)—and for St Martin-ès-Vignes (Life of the Virgin, 1620–25). His civic commissions are exemplified by some 45 extant panels (1620–25; Troyes, Bib. Mun., Mus. Hist. Troyes & Champagne) from the Hôtel de l’Arquebuse, Troyes. Crisply depicted, the last eulogize the French monarchy and the allegiance of the gunsmiths to Louis XIII. Some of the preparatory drawings survive, including two in Troyes (Mus. Hist. Troyes & Champagne and priv. col.), and two for the ...


Graf, Urs  

Christiane Andersson

(b Solothurn, c. 1485; d ?Basle, 1527–9).

Swiss draughtsman, goldsmith, die-cutter, engraver, woodcut and stained-glass designer, painter and glass painter. He was the most original and gifted artist of the early Renaissance in German-speaking Switzerland. His highly imaginative drawings, created as independent works of art, are works of exceptional quality, vitality, expressiveness and often humour. For northern European art, Graf played an important role in the liberation of drawing from its traditionally subsidiary status as preparatory study for works of art in other media.

Graf was trained as a goldsmith by his father, Hug Graf (d 1527–30), and remained active in this profession throughout his career. Although almost none of his goldsmith work is preserved, examples such as the silver engraved plates (1519; London, BM; Zurich, Schweizer. Landesmus.) from a reliquary bust executed for a monastery in the canton of Lucerne are of a high quality. He received additional training (1507–8) from the goldsmith ...


Hemmel von Andlau, Peter  

Virginia Chieffo Raguin

(b Andlau, Alsace; fl 1447; d c. 1501).

German glass painter. His commissions and influence extended from the area around Strasbourg into southern Germany and Austria. Hemmel became a citizen of Strasbourg through marriage in 1447 with the widow of a local glass painter named Heinz. His work shows figure types similar to contemporary engravings, in particular those of Martin Schongauer; Hemmel’s Adoration of the Magi in the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg, is derived from a Schongauer print of the same subject. Distinctive among his many commissions are the Kramer window (1479–80) in Ulm Minster and the axial choir window of St Anne and the Virgin (c. 1478–9) in the Stiftskirche, Tübingen. The balance of the intense purple, scarlet and deep blue against extensive silver-stain yellow and white glass creates a tension between spatial planes. Hemmel’s draughtsmanship in his Virgin and Child with Lily from the Nonnbergkirche, Salzburg (c. 1470–80; Darmstadt, Hess. Landesmus.; see Stained glass, ...


Jorisz. [Joris], David  

Jane Campbell Hutchison

Broek, Jan van; Bruck, Johannes von; Brugge, Johannes von]

(b Ghent or Bruges, c. 1501–2; d Basle, 1556).

South Netherlandish glass painter and religious sect leader. First mentioned in Delft, where he married and settled in 1524, Jorisz. was trained as a painter of stained glass. A convert first to Lutheranism and later to Anabaptism, he was arrested for blasphemy in 1528 and was fined, whipped and had a hole bored in his tongue. He was then banished from Holland and sentenced (in absentia) to be hanged. Calling himself ‘the Third David’, he founded his own Anabaptist sect, took his family and followers to Basle and passed himself off as a Dutch nobleman, ‘Johannes von Bruck’. Living on funds from his Dutch publications—including the Wunderboeck (Deventer, 1542), illustrated with his own woodcut designs—and from secret donations, he lived in the Spiesshof on the upper Heuberg in Basle, and in a series of castles in the countryside. Although quite a few citizens of Basle seem to have known his real identity, he was not denounced until three years after his death, when his body was exhumed and burnt under the gallows, together with a portrait and his heretical writings....


Katzheimer, Wolfgang  

Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...