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Article

Sophie Page

Astrology is the art of predicting events on earth as well as human character and disposition from the movements of the planets and fixed stars. Medieval astrology encompassed both general concepts of celestial influence, and the technical art of making predictions with horoscopes, symbolic maps of the heavens at particular moments and places constructed from astronomical information. The scientific foundations of the art were developed in ancient Greece, largely lost in early medieval Europe and recovered by the Latin West from Arabic sources in the 12th and 13th centuries. Late medieval astrological images were successfully Christianized and were adapted to particular contexts, acquired local meanings and changed over time.

Astrology developed into a scientific branch of learning in ancient Greece, but because of the opposition of the Church Fathers it was transmitted to early medieval Europe in only fragmentary form in technically unsophisticated textbooks and popular divinatory genres. Literary and scientific texts provided more general ideas about the nature and attributes of the planets which were influential on later iconography. The first significant astrological images appear in 11th-century illustrated astronomical texts (e.g. London, BL, Cotton MS. Tiberius BV), which were acquired and produced by monasteries to aid with time-keeping and the construction of the Christian calendar....

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1754, in Norwich, baptised 5 June 1754; died 21 or 6 December 1828, in Hatfield, in very reduced circumstances.

Engraver (etching and stippling), illustrator, printmaker, draughtsman. Portraits, architecture, mythology, religious subjects.

The son of John Baldrey the Elder, John Baldrey the Younger entered the Royal Academy School to study engraving in ...

Article

[CESCM]

French organization founded in Poitiers in 1953. The Centre d’études supérieures de civilisation médiévale (CECSM) is affiliated with the Université de Poitiers, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), and the Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication. The founders, among them historian Edmond-René Labande and art historian René Crozet, began CESCM as a month-long interdisciplinary study of medieval civilization, inviting foreign students to participate. CESCM has since developed into a permanent organization but maintains the international and interdisciplinary focus of its founders.

CESCM continues to hold its formative summer session, known as ‘Les Semaines d’études médiévales’, and invites advanced graduate students of all nationalities. The summer session spans two weeks and includes sessions on a variety of topics, each conducted by a member or affiliate of CESCM. CESCM supports collaborative research groups and regularly holds colloquia attended by the international scholarly community.

Since 1958 CECSM has published ...

Article

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1890, in Ferrara; died 1972, in Appiano Gentile.

Painter, draughtsman, watercolourist, illustrator. Mythological subjects, historical subjects, figures, portraits, nudes, landscapes, urban landscapes, architectural views. Murals, designs for mosaics, frescoes, church decoration.

Futurism, Novecento Italiano.

School of Milan.

Virgile Funi (known as Achille) studied at the Dosso Dossi Institute in Ferrara, then at the Brera Accademia di Belle Arti, in Milan, from 1906 to 1910, where he was a student of Tallone. In 1912, he founded the 'perifuturist' group ...

Article

Danish, 19th – 20th century, male.

Born 1848, in Copenhagen; died 1912.

Painter, watercolourist, illustrator. Interiors, landscapes with figures, urban landscapes, architectural views, ruins, interiors, church interiors.

Copenhagen: View of St Mark's in Venice; View of the Villa Borghese in Rome

Copenhagen (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek): View of the Tomb of A.J. Varstens in Rome...

Article

Haydar  

Sheila S. Blair

[Sayyid Ḥaydar ibn ?Aṣīl al-Din]

(d 1325–6).

Calligrapher. He was one of the six disciples of Yaqut al-Musta‛simi and earned the nickname ‘writer in large characters’ (Pers. kand-navīs), presumably because of his masterful work designing architectural inscriptions in carved stucco. Two superb examples of his work in this medium survive in Iran: a band (1307–8) across the intrados of the north iwan of the mosque in the shrine complex at Natanz, and the mihrab (1310) in the winter prayer hall of the Friday Mosque at Isfahan. He was a renowned teacher whose pupils included such famous calligraphers as ‛Abdallah Sayrafi, and the viziers Taj al-Din ‛Ali Shah and Ghiyath al-Din, the son of Rashid al-Din. His son Muhammad was a calligrapher, too, and signed several calligraphic specimens (e.g. Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 2160, fol. 29v and H. 2310, fol. 97v).

Qāżī Aḥmad ibn Mīr Munshī: Gulistān-i hunar [Rose-garden of art] (...

Article

British, 20th century, male.

Born 1877, in Manchester; died 1930, in Bromborough.

Painter (gouache), watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Local scenes, landscapes, architectural views, church interiors.

Orientalism.

Augustus Osborne Lamplough trained at Chester School of Art and taught in Leeds from 1898 to 1899. He travelled and painted extensively in Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. He exhibited in London and throughout Britain, as well as in the USA (notably New York, Philadelphia and Buffalo). Lamplough's early works are cathedral interiors and architectural views of Venice. Following his journey to the Middle East, he painted desert views, the Nile (particularly reflections in the water at sunrise or dusk) and market scenes. His watercolours are characterised by his use of ochre, buff and beige tonalities, evocative of the desert sands and skies. Several of his watercolours have been published as book illustrations: ...

Article

French, 18th century, male.

Born 19 March 1715, in Paris; died 24 March 1759, in St Petersburg, Russia.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator, engraver (etching). Religious subjects, mythological subjects, architectural views.

Le Lorrain studied under Dumont le Romain. He won first prize in painting in 1739, was approved by the Académie des Beaux-Arts on ...

Article

French, 20th century, male.

Born 29 August 1892, in St-Mars-du-Désert, Brittany; died 1982.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, lithographer, illustrator. Religious subjects, portraits, interiors, landscapes, architectural views, still-lifes, flowers. Church decoration, frescoes.

Albert Lemasson entered the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris in 1919 and became a pupil of Fernand Cormon training for fresco painting with Paul Baudoin. He travelled in France, Italy and Spain....

Article

Alison Stones

French town in the Dordogne that grew up on the site of Roman Vesunna. Roman remains include the arena, temple and villa, the latter now the site of a museum of Roman art designed by Jean Nouvel. Several medieval houses preserve fragments of 13th-century wall paintings. The former medieval cathedral dedicated to St Etienne is located between the temple and arena and preserves several bays of its early 12th-century choir with a flat east end vaulted with domes on pendentives. Similar domes are found at the 12th-century abbey church of St Front, originally outside the walls and since 1669 the cathedral. St Front has a Greek-cross plan like that of the Holy Apostles (destr.) in Constantinople and St Mark’s in Venice. It was restored by Paul Abadie, architect of Sacré-Coeur, Paris, who endowed both buildings with ‘pepper-pot’ turrets. Fragments of early 12th-century sculpture from St Front survive at the Musée du Périgord in Périgueux, some from the tomb of St Fronto described in the mid-12th-century Pilgrims Guide to Santiago de Compostela, where it is claimed that Fronto was sent to Périgueux by St Peter. Other medieval holdings in the museum include the Diptych of Rabastens (Tarn), the founding charter of the Confraternity of the Assumption, containing the names of the founding members beneath scenes of the ...

Article

British, 18th – 19th century, male.

Born 1769, in London; died 29 May 1843, in London.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes, church interiors, architectural views.

William Henry Pyne studied under Henry Pars at the Shipley School in The Strand London and went on to exhibit at the Royal Academy in ...

Article

British, 19th century, male.

Born 1801, in Colnbrook (Berkshire); died probably in 1879, in Windsor.

Painter, watercolourist, draughtsman, illustrator. Genre scenes, interiors with figures, church interiors, architectural views.

Samuel Rayner was first and foremost a watercolorist. He showed his works - primarily architectural compositions - at various exhibitions in London between ...

Article

French, 17th century, male.

Active in Rheimsc.1628.

Born in Rheims.

Engraver, draughtsman, copyist. Religious subjects, genre scenes, scenes with figures, landscapes, architectural views.

Nicolas de Son is a little-known artist whose work has yet to be researched. He etched and engraved with the burin. He engraved copies of etchings by Jacques Callot.He featured in the thematic collective exhibition ...

Article

Austrian, 20th century, male.

Born 12 December 1880, in Prague.

Painter, engraver, illustrator. Religious subjects, genre scenes, urban landscapes, architectural views.

Hugo Steiner-Prag studied at the Prague and Munich academies. He also worked as a bookbinder and theatrical director. He spent some time in Portugal, returning with many pictures. Among his illustrations, particularly notable are those for Andersen's ...

Article

Flemish School, 16th century, male.

Active in Italy.

Born 1523, in Bruges; died 2 November 1605, in Florence.

Painter, draughtsman, illustrator. Religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, genre scenes, landscapes, architectural views. Murals, designs for tapestries.

Antwerp School.

A pupil of Pieter Aertsen in Antwerp, Van der Straet was a guild master at Antwerp in 1545 and worked in Lyons for Corneille de la Haye. He then went to Venice and Florence, where he worked for the Medici family and met Vasari. John of Austria summoned him to Naples, and he then returned to Florence. He is thought to have returned to Flanders around 1576-1578....