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Antigna, Jean Pierre Alexandre  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 7 March 1817, in Orléans; died 26 February 1878, in Paris.

Painter. Religious subjects, genre scenes.


Alexandre Antigna travelled to Paris at the suggestion of André Salamon, then professor of composition at a college in Orléans. He enrolled in Norblin's workshop before going on to work for seven years under the direction of Paul Delaroche. He exhibited at Paris salons on a regular basis from 1841 and was awarded the Légion d'Honneur in 1861. His work was principally on religious themes but, from 1841 to 1846, he took an increasing interest in genre painting. His style brings together observation of nature with studio poses and mannerisms observed from painters such as Daumier....


Aprea, Giuseppe  

Italian, 20th century, male.

Born 1879, in Naples.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, landscapes.

Aprea was a pupil of the history painter Domenico Morelli and the Realist painter Filippo Palizzi at the fine art academy in Naples. As early as 1900 he showed his painting Queen of the Sky...


Barreda Fabres, Ernesto  

Chilean, 20th century, male.

Born 1927, in Paris.


Barreda Fabres studied architecture at the Catholic university in Santiago and taught history of art in the architecture faculty from 1950 to 1955. He used a realist technique to paint constructions that belong to the world of the uncanny and the surreal. He took part in exhibitions in North America, Latin America and Europe and received many awards....


Bonfigli, Benedetto  

Italian, 15th century, male.

Born c. 1420, in Perugia; died 8 July 1496, in Perugia.

Painter, fresco artist. Religious subjects.

Perugian School.

In the 15th century the artists of Perugia were influenced both by the naturalism and feeling for light that is characteristic of the Florentines and the decorative elegance of the Sienese. Bonfigli, who was at the Vatican at the same time as Fra Angelico, in ...


Bourdon, Sébastien  

French, 17th century, male.

Born 2 February 1616, in Montpellier; died 8 May 1671, in Paris.

Painter, fresco artist, engraver, draughtsman. History painting, religious subjects, allegorical subjects, mythological subjects, battles, portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, landscapes with figures.


Sébastien Bourdon was the son of Martin Bourdon, master painter and stained glass worker, who gave him a grounding in his craft. At the age of seven Bourdon went to Paris with an uncle and was placed under the tutelage of Jean Barthélemy. At 14, heading South again, he stopped long enough in Bordeaux to paint frescoes on a ceiling of a local château, which suggests a degree of artistic proficiency. However, the young artist did not meet with much success and, after a miserable stay in Toulouse, he became a soldier, a job for which he was ill-suited. He managed to obtain his release and was 18 when he left for Rome. He visited Venice and other large Italian cities. From 1634 to 1637 he lived in Rome from the copies, some say pastiches, he produced of Cerquozzi, Benedetto Castiglione, Lodovico Carracci, Claude Lorraine, Andrea Sacchi, and particularly Bamboccio (Van Laer). He was a Calvinist, had to leave Rome when a colleague, the painter de Rieux, reported him as a heretic to the Holy Inquisition....


Echard, Auguste Daniel Charles  

French, 19th century, male.

Born c. 1820, in St-Lucien, near Beauvais.

Painter. Church interiors. Murals.

From 1838 to 1844 Auguste Echard was a regular exhibitor at the Paris Salon. With his Flemish Realism and his way of filtering light through stained glass, he was a successor to Peeter Neefs and the other 17th-century Dutch painters of church interiors, the genre in which he specialised....


Osman Hamdi  

S. J. Vernoit

[Edhem, Osman HamdiHamdi Bey]

(b Istanbul, Dec 30, 1842; d Eskihisar, Gebze, nr Istanbul, Feb 24, 1910).

Turkish painter, museum director and archaeologist. In 1857 he was sent to Paris, where he stayed for 11 years, training as a painter under Gustave Boulanger and Jean-Léon Gérôme. On returning to Turkey he served in various official positions, including two years in Baghdad as chargé d’affaires, while at the same time continuing to paint. In 1873 he worked on a catalogue of costumes of the Ottoman empire, with photographic illustrations, for the Weltausstellung in Vienna. In 1881 he was appointed director of the Archaeological Museum at the Çinili Köşk, Topkapı Palace, in Istanbul. He persuaded Sultan Abdülhamid II (reg 1876–1909) to issue an order against the traffic in antiquities, which was put into effect in 1883, and he began to direct excavations within the Ottoman empire. As a result he brought together Classical and Islamic objects for the museum in Istanbul, including the Sarcophagus of Alexander, unearthed in Sidon in ...


I., Master  

German, 15th century, male.

Born probably in Erfurt.


Erfurt School.

Master I. lived in Erfurt from 1405 to 1430 and worked in Thuringia. He founded a new school which sought Realism. His earliest work was the Christ Crucified of St Michael's church in Erfurt, which was followed by the three statues, ...


Monticelli, Adolphe Joseph Thomas  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 16 October 1824, in Marseilles; died 29 June 1886, in Marseilles.

Painter. Religious subjects, figures, portraits, scenes with figures, genre scenes, landscapes, still-lifes, fêtes galantes.


Provencal School.

Monticelli entered the Paris studio of Paul Delaroche at the age of 22. His parents initially favoured a career as a pharmacist, but were soon convinced of his artistic vocation, thanks more to their son's complete lack of enthusiasm for any other activity than to evidence of outstanding talent on his part. Adolphe was a relatively undistinguished student during his three years at the municipal school of drawing in Marseilles; his true inspiration was the Louvre, where he spent long hours copying works by Rembrandt, Veronese and Giorgione, and where he met Delacroix, whom he admired throughout his life. He returned to Marseilles from 1849 to 1863, when he settled in the French capital once again until the outbreak of hostilities in 1870.Monticelli's career was divided equally between Paris and Marseilles (he spent a total of 15 years in each). His artistic evolution is marked by clearly distinguishable 'Paris' and 'Marseilles' periods, but his work as a whole remains underpinned by an inexhaustible, lifelong exploration of the physical and expressive, spiritual properties of colour. His early Romantic works (before 1860) are characterised by capable drawing, careful handling and the use of glazes in shades of yellow and red-brown over a bituminous base. A handful of compositions from this period feature a livelier interplay of brighter, purer colours; by 1860, Monticelli's technique had evolved increasingly in this direction. His paintings of the 1860s are characterised by pearly, iridescent effects and a sophisticated palette. His scenes from the Decameron, or ...


Osouf, Jean  

French, 20th century, male.

Born 1898, in Heiltz-le-Maurupt (Marne); died 19 March 1996.

Sculptor. Statues, busts.

Jean Osouf realised that he wanted to become a sculptor at the age of 30. He also converted to Catholicism from the Protestant faith. He was a friend and student of Despiau, and his other friends included Maillol, Malfray, Manolo, Cornet and the art writer Élie Faure. In ...


Pils, Isidore Alexandre Augustin  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 19 July 1813, in Paris; died 3 September 1875, in Douarnenez (Finistère).

Painter, watercolourist. Religious subjects, military subjects, genre scenes.


Isidore Pils studied at the École des Beaux-Arts under Lethière and Picot, and won the Prix de Rome in 1838. Pils first worked as a painter of religious subjects but produced works that while accurate were rather uninspired. It was the Crimean War, which he followed at first-hand, that provided him with the opportunity to pursue his true vocation by becoming a military artist, a field in which he achieved great success. By 1848 he had already shown his ability with ...


Prevot, Karol de  

Polish, 18th century, male.

Died 1737, in Sandomierz.

Painter. Religious subjects.

Karol de Prevot painted Scenes from the New Testament in Sandomierz cathedral between 1708 and 1737 with incredible realism.


Ribot, Théodule Augustin  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 1823, in St-Nicolas-d'Attez; died 11 September 1891, in Colombes.

Painter, engraver. Religious subjects, portraits, genre scenes, still-lifes.


Théodule Augustin Ribot worked his way into the École des Arts et Métiers (School of Arts and Crafts) in Châlons. Upon the death of his father, he went to Paris and took up employment decorating blinds. He subsequently joined Glaize's studio. After a three-year stay in Germany, he returned to Paris and made a living for some time copying paintings by Watteau for the USA. He made his debut at the Paris Salon in 1861 with four canvases entitled; ...


Tassaert, Octave or Nicolas François Octave  

French, 19th century, male.

Born 26 July 1800, in Paris; died 24 April 1874, in Paris.

Painter, lithographer. Religious subjects, mythological subjects, portraits, genre scenes.


Son of Jean Joseph Franeois Tassaert and pupil of Pierre Girard and Guillon Lethière, this artist enrolled at the École des Beaux-Arts on 1 February 1817. Like his four brothers and his sister, Octave Tassaert had an unhappy childhood and, according to his biographer Bernard Prost, his father was in the habit of turning his children out when they reached the age of twelve. Octave Tassaert was obliged to earn a crust as an engraver when still only a child. He worked initially alongside his brother Paul, then in the workshop of Franeois Girard until, in about 1817, he turned to painting. His early hardships were to affect him throughout the rest of his life and his lack of formal education may have been the principal contributory factor in the solitary life he led which ended in alcohol addiction and death. He took his own life, as the poor often did, by inhaling carbon monoxide fumes from a coal burner....