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Albert, Tótila  

Carlos Lastarria Hermosilla

(b Nov 30, 1892; d Sept 27, 1967).

Chilean sculptor. From 1902 to 1939 he lived in Germany; he studied under Franz Metzner in Berlin. On his return to Chile, he taught at a private school and then taught sculpture in the Academia Particular of the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, also executing important works such as the tomb of President Pedro Aguirre Cerda (1941; Cementerio General de Santiago) and a large relief, La naturaleza, in Parque Cousiño (1945; Santiago, Escuela Jard. Parque Cousiño).

Albert’s training in Germany, when Expressionism was at its height, led him to use distortion of form as the sign of vehement emotion. In his Ariel and Caliban (bronze, h. 8 m, 1960; Santiago, Parque Forestal), limbs are lengthened, muscles swell, tendons are visible beneath the skin, and one body yields and droops while the other rises imposingly into space. These traits are found in all his other sculptures, with the stress on subjectivity impelling him towards the metaphysical notion that the “real” materials with which he works are his own feelings. Yet there is also a meditative depth in his work and a calming effect arising from an idealized geometry of forms. Albert’s concern with mass, which brought out the sensual qualities of his materials, was part of a profound examination of the specific problems of sculptural language: rhythm, movement, and tension of surfaces....


Alciati, Enrique  

Elisa García Barragán

(b Marseille; d after 1912).

Italian sculptor and teacher, active in France and Mexico. He began his career in Marseille as a sculptor of the French school, and in 1888 he received an honorable mention at the Salon des Artistes Français, where he exhibited regularly until 1913. He probably moved to Mexico at the end of 1889. He won critical acclaim for his first works there, marble and bronze busts of important Mexican figures. In 1891 the government commissioned him to create statues of national heroes and dignitaries for the Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City; the statue of Col. Miguel López was exhibited at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago, IL, in 1893 and at the World’s Fair in Atlanta, GA, in 1895, winning prizes on both occasions. This was Alciati’s most dramatic and realist work, and the influence of Rodin is clear. In 1895 he was appointed professor of sculpture, decoration, and modeling at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Mexico City. At the turn of the century he was commissioned to create, under the direction of ...


Arciniega [Arziniega], Claudio de  

François-Auguste de Montêquin

(b Burgos, 1526–7; d Mexico City, 1593).

Mexican architect and sculptor of Spanish birth. In 1541 he moved from his native city to Madrid, where he served as an apprentice to Luis de Vega, one of the architects working in the High Renaissance style for Emperor Charles V. Arciniega worked with Vega in the remodelling of the Alcázar at Madrid. At intervals between 1542 and 1548 he worked under the direction of Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón as a sculptor on the Plateresque façade of the university at Alcalá de Henares. He was possibly also responsible for the main retable in the church of Santiago at Guadalajara.

In 1554 Arciniega arrived in New Spain (now Mexico) with his brother Luis de Arciniega (1537–99), who was also an architect. He settled in Puebla de los Angeles (now Puebla) and worked there between 1554 and 1558, primarily engaged in a large number of public works as master mason. He established his reputation with the fountain that he constructed (...


Balbás, Jerónimo de  

Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Zamora, c. 1680; d Mexico City, 1748).

Spanish architect and sculptor, active in Mexico. Between 1702 and 1703 he worked in Madrid as a designer of stage machinery, later moving to Andalusia, where he produced the principal altar of the sacristy of Seville Cathedral in the Rococo style, completed in 1709 (destr. 1824). Ceán Bermúdez described it as having ‘four large estípites, pilasters, lots of angels prankishly tumbling about and a cornice broken and interrupted in a thousand places with tortuous projections and recessions, the whole topped by a huge arch’. In 1714 Balbás also carried out the plan for the choir-stalls of the church of S Juan in Marchena, carved by Juan de Valencia, equally playful in style and similarly using estípites. The same year he designed the lectern in the same church, though this was not constructed until 1735.

Around 1718 Balbás went to Mexico City to take charge of the ‘retablo del Perdón’ in the Chapel of the Kings at the Metropolitan Cathedral, using the ...


Bridgens, Richard  

Brian Austen


(b ?Sheffield, 1785; d Port of Spain, Trinidad, Nov 1846).

English sculptor, designer and architect. In 1810 he exhibited at the first Liverpool Academy Exhibition and showed models and drawings there in 1811, 1812 and 1814. These included designs for the restoration of the screen in Sefton church, Merseyside, and for a chimney-piece for Speke Hall, Liverpool, and two drawings of Joseph Ridgway’s house at Ridgmont, Horwich, Lancs. Bridgens designed furniture and furnishings in Gothic and Elizabethan styles for George Bullock. In 1814 he moved to London with Bullock, using his address at 4 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, and prepared designs for Sir Godfrey Vassal Webster (1789–1836) for improvements to Battle Abbey, E. Sussex, and similarly for Sir Walter Scott’s home, Abbotsford House, at Melrose on the Borders. Two chair designs for Battle Abbey were published in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository of Arts in September 1817, and Bridgens was also involved in the design of chairs supplied to Abbotsford House in ...


Cárdenas, Agustín  

Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Matanzas, Apr 10, 1927; d Havana, Feb 9, 2001).

Cuban sculptor, active in France. He studied under Juan José Sicre, and at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes “San Alejandro” in Havana (1943–1949). He settled in Paris in 1955 and became involved with the Surrealists. He also started to consider his African heritage and to incorporate Dogon totems in his work (e.g. Sanedrac, 1957; bronze cast, 1974; see Pierre 1988, p. 5). Brancusi and Arp were significant influences, and affinities can also be traced between Cárdenas’s use of line to evoke magical transformations and the works of two other Cubans based in Paris, Wifredo Lam and Jorge Camacho. Working in marble, bronze, and stone, he often used familiar images such as birds, flowers, or the female nude as the bases for his lyrical abstractions (e.g. Engraved Torso, marble, 1976; see Pierre 1988, p. 22). The combination of these images of life with patterns suggesting infinite repetition became a central element in his work and constitute a synthesis of abstraction and reference. He undertook monumental commissions in France, Israel, Austria, Japan, and Canada, and his works are housed in collections worldwide, including the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo, Caracas, the Musée d’Ixelles, Bruxelles, and the Musée d’Art et d’Industrie, Saint Etienne, France....


Cardenas, Miguel Ángel  

Colombian, 20th century, male.

Active in the Netherlands.


Miguel Ángel Cardenas sculpted soft shapes, the symbolism of which is clearly erotic.


Carrasco, Ted  

Pedro Querejazu

(b La Paz, 1933).

Bolivian sculptor. He taught himself to sculpt by studying Pre-Columbian sculpture and ceramics. Between 1959 and 1961 he traveled in several Latin American countries; he then lived in Europe for twelve years, working in the Netherlands, Belgium, France, and Switzerland. While in Europe he married the Swiss sculptor Francine Secretan, with whom he returned to Bolivia in 1974, settling in La Paz. In 1964 he was awarded the first “Queen Elizabeth” prize in the 10th International Sculpture Biennale in Brussels. Carrasco’s preferred materials were stone and bronze. His subject matter was based on the knowledge of the age-old traditions of native peoples and on their relation to nature, although his work is modernist in appearance. His earliest works represent seated women and later the munachis, or love and fertility amulets. In the early 1970s his art became more synthetic, more cryptic, and abstract. During this period his interpretation of the genesis of life was notable, conveyed in enormous spheres that were split open to reveal magical interior worlds. After returning to Bolivia his art became more figurative, as in ...


Carrington, Leonora  

Jorge Alberto Manrique

(b Clayten Green, nr Chorley, Lancashire, April 6, 1917; d Mexico City, May 25, 2011).

Mexican painter, sculptor and writer of English birth. In 1936 she travelled to London, where she studied under Amédée Ozenfant and in 1937 met Max(imilian) Ernst, with whom she became involved artistically and romantically, leading to her association with Surrealism. They moved to Paris together in 1937. At the outbreak of World War II, Ernst was interned as an enemy alien, and Carrington escaped to Spain, where she was admitted to a private clinic after having a nervous breakdown; she later recounted the experience in her book En bas (1943). After marrying the Mexican poet Renato Leduc in 1941 (a marriage of convenience), she spent time in New York before settling in Mexico in 1942, devoting herself to painting. There she and Remedios Varo developed an illusionistic Surrealism combining autobiographical and occult symbolism. Having divorced Leduc in 1942, in 1946 she married the Hungarian photographer Imre Weisz.

Carrington remained committed to Surrealism throughout her career, filling her pictures with strange or fantastic creatures in surprising situations, notably horses, which appear in ...


Curatella Manes, Pablo  

Horacio Safons

(b La Plata, Dec 14, 1891; d Buenos Aires, Nov 14, 1962).

Argentine sculptor. He entered the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires in 1907 and won a scholarship to study in Italy, where he was in the habit of creating and destroying monumental sculptures in a single day. In spite of the prohibition against holders of scholarships absenting themselves from the country to which they were sent, he traveled widely, visiting major museums and galleries and from 1914 to 1926, coming into contact with Aristide Maillol, Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, Maurice Denis, Paul Sérusier, Henri Laurens, Gris, Brancusi, and Le Corbusier. Only his seriousness as an artist saved him from being penalized for breaking the terms of his scholarship.

In 1920 Curatella Manes settled in Paris, where he remained until after World War II. Between 1921 and 1923 he produced accomplished sculptures in a Cubist style, concentrating on representations of figures such as The Guitarist (1921) and The Acrobats...


Dangel, Miguel von  

Elida Salazar

(b Bayreuth, Sept 26, 1946).

Venezuelan painter and sculptor of German birth. He arrived in Venezuela in 1948 and in 1963 began his studies at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas “Cristóbal Rojas” in Caracas. His densely composed work incorporated various objects such as stuffed animals, skins, crucifixes, and mirrors, which he used to develop contemplation of the contemporary, with symbolic reference to what is specifically American and to the sacred nature of art. His use of various materials, in conjunction with animal and vegetable forms, reveals the mythological landscape in which Von Dangel ultimately found expression. He represented Venezuela at the São Paulo Biennale in Brazil in 1983, and his work was included in various international touring group exhibitions. He held various one-man shows in Caracas, outstanding among which was the Batalla de San Romano, held at the Museo de Arte Contemporáneo in Caracas in 1990.

Diccionario de artes visuales en Venezuela. Caracas, 1982.Stein, A....


Darié, Sandú  

Blanca Serrano Ortiz de Solórzano

(b Roman, Moldavia, 1908; d Havana, 1991).

Cuban painter, sculptor, filmmaker, set designer, and ceramicist of Romanian birth. A pioneering figure in the development of concrete abstraction in Cuba, he was a member of the Havana-based artist group Diez Pintores Concretos, and he collaborated with the Argentine art movement Arte Madí.

In 1926 Darié moved to Paris where he studied Law, worked as a cartoonist for French and Romanian print media, and befriended avant-garde artists. In 1941 he fled Vichy France for Cuba, obtaining citizenship four years later. After a period of lyrical abstraction inspired by the local landscape, Darié turned to non-objective art. His first solo exhibition, Composiciones, was held at the Lyceum in Havana in 1949, and later traveled to the Carlebach Gallery in New York where the Museum of Modern Art acquired Composición en Rojo (Composition in Red, 1946).

In New York, Darié met the painter Jean Xceron (1890–1967), who introduced him to the sculptor Gyula Kosice, who was one of the founders of ...


Fabrés, Antonio  

Fausto Ramírez

(b Barcelona, Jun 27, 1854; d Rome, Jan 23, 1938).

Catalan painter, sculptor, and teacher, active also in Mexico. He was the son of the draftsman Cayetano Fabrés. He studied at the Academia Provincial de Bellas Artes in Lonja (1867–1875) and in the studio of the sculptor Andrés Aleu y Teixidor. With his sculpture in plaster the Dead Abel (1875; Barcelona, Real Acad. Cat. B.A. San Jordi), he won a scholarship to study in Rome. There he was attracted to the work of the sculptor Vincenzo Gemito and at the same time to the paintings of Mariano José Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal; eventually he abandoned sculpture to devote himself completely to painting. He worked in a similar Orientalist genre, inspired by North African subject matter, in paintings such as the Warrior’s Repose (1878), the Sultan’s Present (1877–1878; both Barcelona, Mus. N. A. Catalunya), and On the Sultan’s Order (c. 1902; Mexico City, Mus. N. A.). His painting of musketeers, ...


Finlay, Ian Hamilton  

Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...


Fonseca, Gonzalo  

Angel Kalenberg

(b Montevideo, Jul 2, 1922; d Seravezza, Italy, Jun 10, 1997).

Uruguayan painter and sculptor. He studied from 1942 under Joaquín Torres García and was one of the original members in 1944 of the Taller Torres García, in whose mixed exhibitions he took part. In his sculptures and paintings alike he searched for a structured fixing of a recognizable motif, which he conceived as a kind of naturalism. From 1964 he concentrated solely on sculpture; one of his best-known sculptures is a concrete Tower (h. c. 13 m; Mexico City, Ruta de la Solidaridad) for the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City. He spent much of his career in the USA and was the creator of the first sidewalk sculpture in New York City: an unpolished marble column, Votive Column (1970), on East 70th Street, between Park Avenue and Madison Avenue. In 1990 he represented Uruguay at the Venice Biennale.

Gonzalo Fonseca: Recent Works. Edited by Karl Katz. New York, Jew. Mus., 1971. Exhibition catalog....



Gustavo Navarro-Castro

revised by Iliana Cepero

[Goldschmidt, Gertrudis]

(b Hamburg, Aug 1, 1912; d Caracas, Sept 17, 1994).

Venezuelan architect, sculptor, draftsman, and printmaker of German birth. She studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule in Stuttgart until 1938; one of her principal teachers was Paul Bonatz. The following year she traveled to Venezuela, where she combined her artistic career as a sculptor, draftsman, and engraver with teaching. In 1952 she adopted Venezuelan nationality and in 1953 she moved to the coastal town of Tarma where she made watercolors, drawings, and prints. Upon her return to Caracas in 1956, and inspired by the kinetic art movement, she began experimenting with the conversion of planes into three-dimensional forms, exploring the media of drawing, watercolor, engraving, collage, and sculpture and integrating them into architectural spaces, defying artistic conventions. A pioneering example of this approach was her 1962 design for the headquarters of the Banco Industrial de Venezuela in Caracas, which comprised a 10 m tower of interlocking aluminum and steel tubes....


Gil, Jerónimo Antonio  

Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y PérezGerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...


Goeritz, Mathias  

Daniel Garza-Usabiaga

(b Danzig, Germany [now Gdańsk, Poland], Apr 4, 1915; d Mexico City, Aug 4, 1990).

German art historian, painter, sculptor, and architect, active in Mexico. Goeritz studied art history at Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität (now Humboldt University), Berlin, obtaining his doctorate in 1940 with a dissertation on Saxon painter Ferdinand von Rayski (1806–1890). In 1941 he emigrated to Spanish Morocco, where he worked as cultural attaché to the German consulate in Tétouan. In 1945, Goeritz moved to Spain and settled in Santillana del Mar, near Santander. There he became a practicing artist, devoting himself primarily to painting. In 1948, inspired by the archaic art of that region, he was involved in founding the Escuela de Altamira, which represented a call to artistic rebellion and advocated absolute creative freedom.

In 1949 Goeritz moved to Guadalajara, Mexico, and became professor of visual education at the Escuela de Arquitectura of the Universidad de Guadalajara, on the invitation of the school’s director, architect Ignacio Díaz Morales (1905–1992). In addition to teaching, he also organized exhibitions, ran a gallery space, and produced his own work. During this period Goeritz became increasingly interested in sculpture and, particularly, sculpture in wood. He began to use a method of production in which he executed the designs for his works which were then produced by skilled artisans or specialized workers. His wood sculptures, for example, were mainly produced by the artisan Romualdo de la Cruz....


Irarrázabal, Mario  

Milan Ivelić

(b Santiago, 1940).

Chilean sculptor. He studied philosophy and art from 1960 to 1964 at the University of Notre Dame, IN, and theology at the Università Gregoriana Pontificia in Rome from 1965 to 1967. In 1968 he continued his studies under the German sculptor Otto Waldemar. He first exhibited his work in Chile in 1970, consistently using the human figure to express injustice, loneliness, helplessness, sorrow, and torture, as in Judgment (1978; Valparaíso, Mus. Mun. B.A.). Favoring a directness of expression in his bronzes, for which he used the lost-wax process, he sought to leave visible traces of textures and of the marks made in manipulating the material. He used the nudity of the human body, sometimes lacerated or with exaggerated proportions—the torso is sometimes unduly large in relation to the arms and legs—to emphasize its vulnerability and helplessness, reinforcing this impression by his choice of postures. Whether prone, reclining, seated, or standing, the figure is always characterized by the determined way in which the head is held, which completes the expressive effect....


Košice, Gyula  

Jorge Glusberg

[Fallik, Fernando]

(b Košice, Czechoslovakia [now Slovak Republic], 1924; d Buenos Aires, May 25, 2016).

Argentine sculptor, theorist, and poet of Slovak birth. A resident of Argentina from 1928, he studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes “Manuel Belgrano” in Buenos Aires, and in 1944 he collaborated with Joaquín Torres García and the Argentine poet Edgar Bayley (1919–1990) on the magazine Arturo (one issue only), which proposed geometric abstraction for the first time in Argentina. He was also a leading figure of Arte Madí, together with Carmelo Arden Quin (1913–2010). During this period he produced his first articulated mobiles (e.g. Royi, 1944; see Glusberg 1985, 73), which involved the active participation of the spectator, and early examples of sculptures made of neon (e.g. Madí Aluminium Structure No. 3, 1946). Like his colleagues in Arte Madí, he proposed the radical autonomy of the art object, and in his later work he explored the possibilities of a diverse range of materials, including even water in his ...